IAU Symposium 127 was held in Princeton on May 28-31, 1986, at the Institute for Advanced Study. There were 150 participants from 19 countries. This was the first IAU Symposium devoted exclusively to elliptical galaxies. The last decade has been a period of exceptionally rapid progress regard ing our understanding of elliptical galaxies, driven on the observational side by a wealth of new photometric and spectroscopic data, and on the theoretical side by the recognition that ellipticals are slowly rotating triaxial systems, instead of rotationally flattened bodies. The 30 invited speakers reviewed all aspects of this progress, its consequences, and the major outstanding problems. Nearly 80 poster contributions were displayed for the duration of the meeting. These contained many of the most recent developments. The first part of these Proceedings contains the written versions of the invited reviews and the summary, in the order of their presentation. The accompanying discussions are based on the written versions of questions and answers as handed in by the participants. The second part of this book is devoted to the poster contribu tions. They have been grouped in a thematic order, proceeding from morphology to theory. Indices of objects, subjects, and names are provided. Unfortunately, none of the invited participants from the USSR were able to attend the Symposium. The Proceedings include the written versions of the planned contributions by Popov and Polyachenko.
Table of ContentsInvited Reviews.- General Historical Introduction.- Cores of Early-Type Galaxies.- Isophote Shapes.- Distribution of Light: Outer Regions.- The Stellar Kinematics of Elliptical Galaxies.- The Manifold of Elliptical Galaxies.- Properties of cD Galaxies.- Compact Elliptical Galaxies.- Dust and Gas: Overview.- Ionized Gas in Elliptical Galaxies.- Properties of Elliptical Galaxies with Dust Lanes.- The Cold Interstellar Medium in Elliptical Galaxies - Observations of HI and Radio Continuum Emission.- X-Rays from Elliptical Galaxies.- Star Formation in Cooling Flows.- Mass Distributions in Elliptical Galaxies at Large Radii.- Line Strength Gradients in Early-Type Galaxies.- Population Synthesis of Composite Systems.- The Intrinsic Shapes of Elliptical Galaxies.- Orbits.- Dynamics in the Centres of Triaxial Elliptical Galaxies.- Shells and the Potential Wells of Elliptical Galaxies.- Spherical Galaxies: Methods and Models.- Dynamical Models for Axisymmetric and Triaxial Galaxies.- N-Body Simulations of Elliptical Galaxies.- Stability of Elliptical Galaxies. Theoretical Aspects.- Stability of Elliptical Galaxies. Numerical Experiments.- Formation and Secular Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies.- Dissipationless Formation of Elliptical Galaxies.- Dissipation and the Formation of Galaxies.- Summary.- Posters.- Morphological Properties of Elliptical Galaxies.- Correlations between r1/4-Law Parameters for Bulges and Elliptical Galaxies.- The Core Properties of Elliptical Galaxies.- Surface Photometry of Bright Ellipticals.- Isophotometry of Brightest Cluster Ellipticals.- Investigating the Scatter in the V26 - log ? relation.- On the Relation between Radius, Luminosity and Surface Brightness in Elliptical Galaxies.- The Isophotal Structure of Elliptical Galaxies.- Parent Structures in E and S0 Galaxies?.- Intrinsic Shapes of Elliptical Galaxies From a Statistical Comparison of Two Different Isophotes.- Deprojection of Galaxies: How Much Can Be Learned?.- Disk Rotation Curves in Triaxial Potentials.- A Method To Determine the Intrinsic Axial Ratios of Individual Triaxial Galaxies.- Settling of Gas Disks in Elliptical Galaxies.- Dust in Early Type Galaxies observed at the CFHT.- Detailed Surface Photometry of the Dust-Lane Elliptical NGC 6702.- Boxy Isophotes and Dust Lanes in Bright Virgo Ellipticals.- The Unusual Box-Shaped Elliptical(?) Galaxy IC 3370.- AM2020-5050: an Elliptical Galaxy with an Outer Ring.- Taurus Observations of S0 Polar Ring Galaxies.- The Structure and Kinematics of the Ionized Gas In Centaurus A.- Fabry-Perot Observations of Cen A.- HI Imaging of Radio Active Ellipticals.- The Distribution and Kinematics of Neutral Hydrogen in NGC 807.- Gas, Dust and Radio Emission in Elliptical Galaxies.- The Discovery of Blazar-Type Nuclei in Two Nearby Radio Ellipticals.- Stellar Dynamics of Radio Elliptical Galaxies.- Properties of the X-Ray Emitting Gas in Early Type Galaxies.- Are Cooling Flows Governing E-Galaxy Evolution?.- Metal-Enhanced Galactic Winds.- The Hydrodynamical Evolution of Gas in Young Elliptical Galaxies.- Ultraviolet Energy Distributions of (32) Early-Type Galaxies.- Line-Strength Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies.- Visual-IR Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies.- Direct IR Determination of the Stellar Luminosity Function to 0.2 M? in Elliptical Galaxies.- Dynamics of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy.- Anisotropy of the Velocity Dispersion in ? Centauri.- Spectroscopy of the Globular Clusters in M87.- The “Jet” of M89: CCD Surface Photometry.- Dwarf Galaxies in the Fornax Cluster.- The Local Density and Morphology Dependence of the Galaxy Luminosity Function.- An Investigation of the Radial Dependence of the Galaxy Luminosity Function in Abell Clusters.- On the Luminosity Function of Elliptical Galaxies.- Spectrophotometry of Shell Galaxies.- Two Colour CCD Photometry of Malin-Carter Shell Galaxies.- Shells and Dark Matter in Elliptical Galaxies.- Shells around Tumbling Bars: The Mass Distribution Around NGC 3923.- Initial Tidal Effects on Shell Formation.- Shells and Encounters of Disk Galaxies with Ellipticals.- Dynamical Friction and Orbit Circularization.- Stochastic Stellar Orbits and the Shapes of Elliptical Galaxies.- Complex Instability Around the Rotation Axis of Triaxial Systems.- Stochasticity in Models of Elliptical Galaxies.- Natural Action-Angle Variables.- Integrals of Motion in an Elliptical Galaxy Model.- Self-consistent Models of Perfect Triaxial Galaxies.- Self-consistent Oblate-Spheroid Models.- Self-consistent Elliptical Disks.- Stellar Dynamics of Needles.- Formal Inversion of the Self-Consistent Problem for Triaxial Galaxies.- Analytic Axisymmetric Dynamical Models with Three Integrals of Motion.- Triaxial Scale-Free Models of Highly Flattened Elliptical Galaxies with Massive Halos.- Box Models without Cylindrical Rotation.- Dynamical Approach to the R1/4 Law of Ellipticals.- Statistical Mechanics and Equilibrium Sequences of Ellipticals.- On the Distribution Function of Elliptical Galaxies.- Towards a Self-consistent Model of a Galaxy.- The Envelopes of Spherical Galaxies.- Spherical Stellar Systems: Structure and Evolution.- Instability Through Anisotropy in Spherical Stellar Systems.- Collisional Effects on the Density Profiles of Spherical Galaxies.- Cold Collapse as a Way of Making Elliptical Galaxies.- Angular Momentum in Elliptical Galaxies.- Violent Relaxation and Mixing in 1-D Gravitational Systems.- The Dynamical Evolution of a Star Cluster.- Numerical Investigation of the Density Distribution of Stars and the Dispersion of Velocities in Spiral Galaxies.- Appendices.- Indices.- Subjects.- Objects.- Names.