TensorFlow for Deep Learning: From Linear Regression to Reinforcement Learning

TensorFlow for Deep Learning: From Linear Regression to Reinforcement Learning

by Bharath Ramsundar, Reza Bosagh Zadeh


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Learn how to solve challenging machine learning problems with TensorFlow, Google’s revolutionary new software library for deep learning. If you have some background in basic linear algebra and calculus, this practical book introduces machine-learning fundamentals by showing you how to design systems capable of detecting objects in images, understanding text, analyzing video, and predicting the properties of potential medicines.

TensorFlow for Deep Learning teaches concepts through practical examples and helps you build knowledge of deep learning foundations from the ground up. It’s ideal for practicing developers with experience designing software systems, and useful for scientists and other professionals familiar with scripting but not necessarily with designing learning algorithms.

  • Learn TensorFlow fundamentals, including how to perform basic computation
  • Build simple learning systems to understand their mathematical foundations
  • Dive into fully connected deep networks used in thousands of applications
  • Turn prototypes into high-quality models with hyperparameter optimization
  • Process images with convolutional neural networks
  • Handle natural language datasets with recurrent neural networks
  • Use reinforcement learning to solve games such as tic-tac-toe
  • Train deep networks with hardware including GPUs and tensor processing units

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781491980453
Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Incorporated
Publication date: 03/30/2018
Pages: 256
Sales rank: 403,720
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Bharath Ramsundar received a BA and BS from UC Berkeley in EECS and Mathematics and was valedictorian of his graduating class in mathematics. He is currently a PhD student in computer science at Stanford University with the Pande group. His research focuses on the application of deep-learning to drug-discovery. In particular, Bharath is the lead-developer and creator of DeepChem.io, an open source package founded on TensorFlow that aims to democratize the use of deep-learning in drug-discovery. He is supported by a Hertz Fellowship, the most selective graduate fellowship in the sciences.

Reza Bosagh Zadeh is Founder CEO at Matroid and Adjunct Professor at Stanford University. His work focuses on Machine Learning, Distributed Computing, and Discrete Applied Mathematics. Reza received his PhD in Computational Mathematics from Stanford University under the supervision of Gunnar Carlsson. His awards include a KDD Best Paper Award and the Gene Golub Outstanding Thesis Award. He has served on the Technical Advisory Boards of Microsoft and Databricks.

As part of his research, Reza built the Machine Learning Algorithms behind Twitter's who-to-follow system, the first product to use Machine Learning at Twitter. Reza is the initial creator of the Linear Algebra Package in Apache Spark and his work has been incorporated into industrial and academic cluster computing environments. In addition to research, Reza designed and teaches two PhD-level classes at Stanford: Distributed Algorithms and Optimization (CME 323), and Discrete Mathematics and Algorithms (CME 305).

Table of Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction to Deep Learning 1

Machine Learning Eats Computer Science 1

Deep Learning Primitives 3

Fully Connected Layer 3

Convolutional Layer 4

Recurrent Neural Network Layers 4

Long Short-Term Memory Cells 5

Deep Learning Architectures 6

LeNet 6

AlexNet 6

ResNet 7

Neural Captioning Model 8

Google Neural Machine Translation 9

One-Shot Models 10

AlphaGo 12

Generative Adversarial Networks 13

Neural Turing Machines 14

Deep Learning Frameworks 15

Limitations of TensorFlow 16

Review 17

2 Introduction to TensorFlow Primitives 19

Introducing Tensors 19

Scalars, Vectors, and Matrices 20

Matrix Mathematics 24

Tensors 25

Tensors in Physics 27

Mathematical Asides 28

Basic Computations in TensorFlow 29

Installing TensorFlow and Getting Started 29

Initializing Constant Tensors 30

Sampling Random Tensors 31

Tensor Addition and Scaling 32

Matrix Operations 33

Tensor Types 35

Tensor Shape Manipulations 35

Introduction to Broadcasting 37

Imperative and Declarative Programming 37

TensorFlow Graphs 39

TensorFlow Sessions 39

TensorFlow Variables 40

Review 42

3 Linear and Logistic Regression with TensorFlow 43

Mathematical Review 43

Functions and Differentiability 44

Loss Functions 45

Gradient Descent 50

Automatic Differentiation Systems 53

Learning with TensorFlow 55

Creating Toy Datasets 55

New TensorFlow Concepts 60

Training Linear and Logistic Models in TensorFlow 64

Linear Regression in TensorFlow 64

Logistic Regression in TensorFlow 73

Review 79

4 Fully Connected Deep Networks 81

What Is a Fully Connected Deep Network? 81

"Neurons" in Fully Connected Networks 83

Learning Fully Connected Networks with Backpropagation 85

Universal Convergence Theorem 87

Why Deep Networks? 88

Training Fully Connected Neural Networks 89

Learnable Representations 89

Activations 89

Fully Connected Networks Memorize 90

Regularization 90

Training Fully Connected Networks 94

Implementation in TensorFlow 94

Installing DeepChem 94

Tox21 Dataset 95

Accepting Minibatches of Placeholders 96

Implementing a Hidden Layer 96

Adding Dropout to a Hidden Layer 97

Implementing Minibatching 98

Evaluating Model Accuracy 98

Using TensorBoard to Track Model Convergence 99

Review 101

5 Hyperparameter Optimization 103

Model Evaluation and Hyperparameter Optimization 104

Metrics, Metrics, Metrics 105

Binary Classification Metrics 106

Multiclass Classification Metrics 108

Regression Metrics 110

Hyperparameter Optimization Algorithms 110

Setting Up a Baseline 111

Graduate Student Descent 113

Grid Search 114

Random Hyperparameter Search 115

Challenge for the Reader 116

Review 117

6 Convolutional Neural Networks 119

Introduction to Convolutional Architectures 120

Local Receptive Fields 120

Convolutional Kernels 122

Pooling Layers 125

Constructing Convolutional Networks 125

Dilated Convolutions 126

Applications of Convolutional Networks 127

Object Detection and Localization 127

Image Segmentation 128

Graph Convolutions 129

Generating Images with Variational Autoencoders 131

Training a Convolutional Network in TensorFlow 134

The MNIST Dataset 134

Loading MNIST 135

TensorFlow Convolutional Primitives 138

The Convolutional Architecture 140

Evaluating Trained Models 144

Challenge for the Reader 146

Review 146

7 Recurrent Neural Networks 149

Overview of Recurrent Architectures 150

Recurrent Cells 152

Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) 152

Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) 154

Applications of Recurrent Models 154

Sampling from Recurrent Networks 154

Seq2seq Models 155

Neural Turing Machines 157

Working with Recurrent Neural Networks in Practice 159

Processing the Penn Treebank Corpus 159

Code for Preprocessing 160

Loading Data into TensorFlow 162

The Basic Recurrent Architecture 164

Challenge for the Reader 166

Review 166

8 Reinforcement Learning 169

Markov Decision Processes 173

Reinforcement Learning Algorithms 175

Q-Learning 176

Policy Learning 177

Asynchronous Training 179

Limits of Reinforcement Learning 179

Playing Tic-Tac-Toe 181

Object Orientation 181

Abstract Environment 182

Tic-Tac-Toe Environment 182

The Layer Abstraction 185

Defining a Graph of Layers 188

The A3C Algorithm 192

The A3C Loss Function 196

Defining Workers 198

Training the Policy 201

Challenge for the Reader 203

Review 203

9 Training Large Deep Networks 205

Custom Hardware for Deep Networks 205

CPU Training 206

GPU Training 207

Tensor Processing Units 209

Field Programmable Gate Arrays 211

Neuromorphic Chips 211

Distributed Deep Network Training 212

Data Parallelism 213

Model Parallelism 214

Data Parallel Training with Multiple GPUs on Cifar10 215

Downloading and Loading the DATA 216

Deep Dive on the Architecture 218

Training on Multiple GPUs 220

Challenge for the Reader 223

Review 223

10 The Future of Deep Learning 225

Deep Learning Outside the Tech Industry 226

Deep Learning in the Pharmaceutical Industry 226

Deep Learning in Law 227

Deep Learning for Robotics 227

Deep Learning in Agriculture 228

Using Deep Learning Ethically 228

Is Artificial General Intelligence Imminent? 230

Where to Go from Here? 231

Index 233

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