The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids: Volume II Animals

The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids: Volume II Animals

by T. Goodwin

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984)

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des Plantes (Hermann, Paris), and in 1935 by Lederer's Les Carotenoides des Animaux (Hermann, Paris). Since then a survey such as the present one has not appeared. In order to present a full picture, much of the pre-1934 work has been reconsidered and, as far as is known, every important contribution which has appeared since that date has been discussed. Two peripheral aspects ofthe subject have, however, been omitted, namely (a) the qualita­ tive and quantitative changes which the carotenoids of plant materials undergo in storage or during processing into food and (b) the carotene (pro-vitamin A) requirements of different animal species; it was felt that the former, about which a great deal has been written, was too technological to be suitable for inclusion in the present volume, whilst the latter is more suitable for a monograph on vitamin A. The very wide distribution of the carotenoids in Nature suggests that, in spite of the superficially diverse functions ascribed to them in different living tissues, there may be some factor or property through which all these functions will eventually be correlated; any suggestion as to the nature of this common property can perhaps come most readily from a comparative approach. Apart from critically surveying the literature this book has been constructed so as to focus attention on comparative data and their possible implications.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789401089456
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 10/21/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1. Carotenoid-Protein Complexes.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Carotenolipo (glyco) proteins.- 1.3 Carotenoproteins.- 1.3.1 General.- 1.3.2 Lobster pigments.- (a) Crustacyanin.- (b) Ovoverdin.- (c) Yellow pigments.- (d) Chromoproteins in vivo.- 1.3.3 Starfish pigments.- (a) Asterias rubens.- (b) Marthasterias glacialis.- 1.3.4 Velella mantle pigment.- 1.3.5 Pomacea pigment, ovorubin.- 1.3.6 Salpa cylindrica pigment.- 1.3.7 Rhynchosciara americana complex.- 1.3.8 Coral pigments.- 1.4 Nature of bonding of pigments to apoproteins.- 1.5 References.- 2. Porifera.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Nature and distribution.- 2.3 Source of sponge carotenoids.- 2.4 Chemosystematics of sponge carotenoids.- 2.5 References.- 3. Coelenterates.- 3.1 Class Hydrozoa.- 3.1.1 Distribution.- 3.1.2 Formation.- 3.2 Class Scyphozoa.- 3.3 Class Anthozoa.- 3.3.1 Sub-class Alcyonaria.- 3.3.2 Sub-class Hexacorallaria.- (a) Distribution.- (b) Formation.- (c) Function.- 3.4 References.- 4. Echinodermata, Annelida, Sipunculida, Priapulida, Platyhelminthes and Bryozoa.- 4.1 Echinodermata.- 4.1.1 Asteroidea.- 4.1.2 Ophiuroidea.- 4.1.3 Holothuroidea.- 4.1.4 Crinoidea.- 4.1.5 Echinoidea.- 4.1.6 Formation, metabolism and function.- 4.2 Annelida.- 4.3 Sipunculida.- 4.4 Priapulida.- 4.5 Platyhelminthes.- 4.6 Bryozoa.- 4.7 Formation and metabolism.- 4.8 References.- 5. Mollusca.- 5.1 Pelecypoda (Bivalvia, Lamellibranchia, Acephala).- 5.1.1 Nature and distribution.- 5.1.2 Formation and metabolism.- 5.2 Gastropoda.- 5.2.1 Marine gastropods.- 5.2.2 Fresh-water gastropods.- 5.2.3 Terrestrial gastropods.- 5.3 Amphineura.- 5.4 Cephalopoda.- 5.5 Function of carotenoids.- 5.6 References.- 6. Crustacea.- 6.1 Nature and distribution.- 6.1.1 Sub-class Branchiopoda.- (a) Anostraca.- 6.1.2 Sub-class Ostracoda.- 6.1.3 Sub-class Copepoda.- 6.1.4 Sub-class Cirripedia.- 6.1.5 Sub-class Malacostraca.- (a) Isopoda.- (b) Amphipoda.- (c) Euphausiacea.- (d) Mysidacea.- (e) Decapoda.- (f) Stomatopoda.- 6.2 Localization.- 6.2.1 Overall picture.- 6.2.2 Quantitative distribution.- 6.2.3 Integument.- (a) Carapace.- (b) Epidermis.- 6.2.4 Haemolymph.- 6.2.5 Hepatopancreas.- 6.2.6 Digestive tract.- 6.2.7 Gonads.- 6.3 Metabolism.- 6.3.1 Modification of food carotenoids.- 6.3.2 Metabolism during sexual cycle.- 6.3.3 Metabolism resulting in loss of pigments.- 6.4 Hormonal control of pigmentation.- 6.4.1 Eye stalk secretions.- 6.4.2 Androgens.- 6.5 Sexual dimorphism.- 6.6 Colour variants.- 6.7 Environmental and ecological considerations.- 6.7.1 Seasonal variations.- 6.7.2 Diurnal variations.- 6.7.3 Background and illumination.- 6.8 Crowding.- 6.9 Parasitization.- 6.10 Function.- 6.11 References.- 7. Arachnids and Insects.- 7.1 Arachnida.- 7.1.1 Acarina.- (a) Distribution.- (b) Mutants.- (c) Metabolism.- 7.2 Insecta.- 7.2.1 Distribution.- (a) Orthoptera.- (b) Phasmida.- (c) Hemiptera.- (d) Coleoptera.- (e) Diptera.- (f) Lepidoptera.- (g) Hymenoptera.- 7.2.2 Metabolism of ingested carotenoids.- (a) Astaxanthinformation.- (b) Carotenoids with oxygen at C-2.- (c) Lutein derivatives.- (d) Synthesis by symbiotic micro-organisms.- 7.2.3 Insect coloration.- (a) Carotenoid contribution.- (b) Hormonal and environmental factors.- 7.3 Function.- 7.4 References.- 8. Tunicates and Fish.- 8.1 Tunicates.- 8.2 Fish.- 8.2.1 Distribution.- (a) Skin.- (b) Muscle.- (c) Eggs.- (d) Sperm.- (e) Liver.- (f) Other organs.- (g) Quantitative distribution.- (h) Qualitative variations.- 8.2.2 Formation of specific carotenoids.- (a) Astaxanthin.- (b) Tunaxanthins.- (c) Parasiloxanthin.- (d) 2-Hydroxy-?-carotene.- 8.2.3 Pigment function.- (a) Colour pattern.- (b) Vision.- (c) As vitamin A precursors.- 8.3 References.- 9. Amphibia and Reptiles.- 9.1 Amphibia.- 9.1.1 Distribution.- 9.1.2 Metabolism.- 9.2 Reptiles.- 9.2.1 Distribution.- (a) Snakes.- (b) Lizards.- (c) Turtles.- 9.2.2 Function.- 9.3 References.- 10. Birds.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Distribution.- 10.2.1 Feathers.- 10.2.2 Eggs.- 10.2.3 Skin.- 10.2.4 Eyes.- 10.2.5 Other tissues.- 10.3 Formation.- 10.4 Metabolism.- 10.5 Function.- 10.6 Coloration of poultry foods.- 10.7 References.- 11. Mammals.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Carotenoid accumulators.- 11.2.1 Indiscriminate accumulators.- (a) Distribution.- (b) Metabolism.- (c) Pathological conditions.- (d) Absorption.- 11.2.2 Carotene accumulators.- (a) Distribution.- (b) Metabolism.- (c) Function.- 11.3 Non-accumulators.- 11.3.1 Distribution.- 11.3.2 Metabolism.- 11.4 Conversion of carotenoids into Vitamin A.- 11.4.1 Structural requirements.- 11.4.2 Site of conversion.- 11.4.3 Enzymology of conversion.- 11.4.4 Factors controlling conversion.- 11.5 References.- General Index.- Species Index.

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