More mounds were built by ancient Native Americans in Wisconsin than in any other region of North America--between 15,000 and 20,000, at least 4,000 of which remain today. Most impressive are the effigy mounds, huge earthworks sculpted in the shapes of thunderbirds, water panthers, and other forms, not found anywhere else in the world in such concentrations. This second edition is updated throughout, incorporating exciting new research and satellite imagery. Written for general readers, it offers a comprehensive overview of these intriguing earthworks.Citing evidence from past excavations, ethnography, the traditions of present-day Native Americans in the Midwest, ground-penetrating radar and LIDAR imaging, and recent findings of other archaeologists, Robert A. Birmingham and Amy L. Rosebrough argue that effigy mound groups are cosmological maps that model belief systems and relations with the spirit world. The authors advocate for their preservation and emphasize that Native peoples consider the mounds sacred places. This edition also includes an expanded list of public parks and preserves where mounds can be respectfully viewed, such as the Kingsley Bend mounds near Wisconsin Dells, an outstanding effigy group maintained by the Ho-Chunk Nation, and the Man Mound Park near Baraboo, the only extant human-shaped effigy mound in the world.
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Field, an award-winning gay poet now in his seventies, brings the bohemianism of the 1950s alive. The content is a reminiscence made up mostly of vignettes of individuals Field knew rather than literary or social history though the impress of the bohemianism centered in Greenwich Village on American literature and culture comes out. Susan Sontag, James Baldwin, May Swenson, Paul Bowles, and Frank O'Hara all make appearances, along with numerous other famed artists and little-known, yet still colorful individuals including the author's partner Neil Derrick. The six-page index consists entirely of the names of individuals Field portrays to varying degrees. Much of the memoir focuses on the sexual escapades and relationships of many characters and how the author and others got by as homosexuals in this era when this was not as open as it is today, yet nonetheless accepted in the limited, adventurous world of Greenwich Village. For Field's position in the local art scene, his wide circle of friends and acquaintances, and his extended treatment of the libertine sexual activity, the work is a basic source on this notable, particularly fertile vein of American artistic creativity.