The Psychology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained

The Psychology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained

by DK


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How does memory work? Who is the "distractor" in your family? What was the "car crash" experiment?

The Psychology Book is your visual guide to the complex and fascinating world of human behavior. Discover how we learn, become emotionally bonded with others, and develop coping mechanisms to deal with adversity, or conform in a group. Get to know key thinkers, from Freud and Jung to Elizabeth Loftus and Melanie Klein, and follow charts and timelines to make sense of it all and see how one theory influenced another.

With concise explanations of different schools of psychology including psychotherapy, cognitive psychology and behaviorism, this is an ideal reference whether you're a student, or a general reader. It's your authoritative guide to over 100 key ideas, theories and conditions, including the collective unconscious, the "selfish" gene, false memory, psychiatric disorders, and autism.

If you're fascinated by the human mind, The Psychology Book is both an invaluable reference and illuminating read.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781465458568
Publisher: DK
Publication date: 02/21/2017
Series: Big Ideas
Pages: 352
Sales rank: 76,176
Product dimensions: 7.60(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.80(d)
Lexile: 1280L (what's this?)

About the Author

DK was founded in London in 1974 and is now the world leading illustrated reference publisher and a member of the Penguin Random House division of Bertelsmann. DK publishes highly visual, photographic non-fiction for adults and children. DK produces content for consumers in over 100 countries and over 60 languages, with offices in the UK, India, US, Germany, China, Canada, Spain and Australia.

DK's aim is to inspire, educate and entertain readers of all ages, and everything DK publishes, whether print or digital, embodies the unique DK design approach. DK brings unrivalled clarity to a wide range of topics, with a unique combination of words and pictures, put together to spectacular effect. We have a reputation for innovation in design for both print and digital products.

Our adult range spans travel, including the award-winning DK Eyewitness Travel Guides, history, science, nature, sport, gardening, cookery and parenting. 

DK’s extensive children’s list showcases a fantastic store of information for children, toddlers and babies. DK covers everything from animals and the human body, to homework help and craft activities, together with an impressive list of licensing titles, including the best-selling LEGO® books.

DK acts as the parent company for Alpha Books, publisher of the Idiot's Guides series.

Table of Contents

Introduction 10

Philosophical Roots: Psychology in the Making

The Four temperaments of personality Galen 16

There is a reasoning soul in this machine Descartes 20

Dormez! Abbé Faria 22

Concepts become forces when they resist one another Johann Friedrich Herbart 24

Be that self which one truly is Søren Kierkegaard 26

Personality is composed of nature and nurture Francis Galton 28

The laws of hysteria are universal Jean-Martin Charcot 30

A peculiar destruction of the internal connections of the psyche Emil Kraepelin 31

The beginnings of the mental life date from the beginnings of life Wilhelm Wundt 32

We know the meaning of "consciousness" so long as no one asks us to define it William James 38

Adolescence is a new birth G. Stanley Hall 46

24 hours after learning something, we forget two-thirds of it Hermann Ebbinghaus 48

The intelligence of an individual is not a fixed quantity Alfred Binet 50

The unconscious sees the men behind the curtains Pierre Janet 54

Behaviorism: Responding to Our Environment

The Sight of tasty food makes a hungry man's mouth water Ivan Pavlov 60

Profitless acts are stamped out Edward Thorndike 62

Anyone, regardless of their nature, can be trained to be anything John B. Watson 66

That great God-given maze which is our human world Edward Tolman 72

Once a rat has visited out grain sack we can plan on its return Edwin Guthrie 74

Nothing is more natural than for the cat to "love" the rat Zing-Yang Kuo 75

Learning is just not possible Karl Lashley 76

Imprinting cannot be forgotten! Kanrad Lorenz 77

Behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement B.F. Skinner 78

Stop imagining the scene and relax Joseph Wolpe 86

Psychotherapy: The Unconscious Determines Behavior

The unconscious is the true psychical reality Sigmund Freud 92

The neurotic carries a feeling of inferiority with him constantly Alfred Adler 100

The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes Carl Jung 102

The struggle between the life and death instincts persists throughout life Melanie Klein 108

The tyranny of the "shoulds" Karen Horney 110

The superego becomes clear only when it confronts the ego with hostility Anna Freud 111

Truth can be tolerated only if you discover it yourself Fritz Perls 112

It is notoriously inadequate to take an adopted child into one's home and love him Donald Winnicott 118

The unconscious is the discourse of the Other Jacques Lacan 122

Man's main task is to give birth to himself Erich Fromm 124

The good life is a process not a state of being Carl Rogers 130

What a man can be, he must be Abraham Maslow 138

Suffering ceases to be suffering at the moment it finds a meaning Viktor Frankl 140

One does not become fully human painlessly Rollo May 141

Rational beliefs create healthy emotional consequences Albert Ellis 142

The family is the "factory" where people are made Virginia Satir 146

Turn on, tune in, drop out Timothy Leary 148

Insight may cause blindness Paul Watzlawick 149

Madness need not be all breakdown. It may also be break-through R.D. Laing 150

Our history does not determine our destiny Boris Cyrulnik

Only good people get depressed Dorothy Rowe 154

Fathers are subject to a rule of silence Guy Corneau 155

Cognitive Psychology: The Calculating Brain

Instinct is a dynamic pattern Wolfgang Köhler 160

Interruption of a task greatly improves its chances of being remembered Bluma Zeigarnik 162

When a baby hears footsteps, an assembly is excited Donald Hebb 163

Knowing is a process not a product Jerome Bruner 164

A man with conviction is a hard man to change Leon Festinger 166

The magical number 7, plus or minus 2 George Armitage Miller 168

There's more to the surface than meets the eye Aaron Beck 174

We can listen to only one voice at once Donald Broadbent 178

Time's arrow is bent into a loop Endel Tulving 186

Perception is externally guided hallucination Roger N. Shepard 192

We are constantly on the lookout for causal connections Daniel Kahneman 193

Events and emotion are stored in memory together Gordon H. Bower 194

Emotions are a runaway train Paul Ekman 196

Ecstasy is a step into an alternative reality Mihály Csikszentmihalyi 198

Happy people are extremely social Martin Seligman 200

What we believe with all our hearts is not necessarily the truth Elizabeth Loftus 202

The seven sins of memory Daniel Schacter 208

One is not one's thoughts Jon Kabat-Zinn 210

The fear is that biology will debunk all that we hold sacred Steven Pinker 211

Compulsive behavior rituals are attempts to control intrusive thoughts Paul Salkovskis 212

Social Psychology Being in a World of Others

You cannot understand a system until you try to change it Kurt Lewin 218

How strong is the urge toward social conformity? Solomon Asch 224

Life is a dramatically enacted thing Eiving Goffman 228

The more you see it, the more you like it Robert Zajonc 230

Who likes competent women? Janet Taylor Spence 236

Flashbulb memories are fired by events of high emotionality Roger Brown 237

The goal is not to advance knowledge, but to be in the know Serge Moscovici 238

We are, by nature, social beings William Glasser 240

We believe people get what they deserve Melvin Lerner 242

People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy Elliot Aronson 244

People do what they are told to do Stanley Milgram 246

What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Philip Zimbardo 254

Trauma must be understood in terms of the relationship between the individual and society Ignacio Martin-Baró 256

Developmental Philosophy: From Infant to Adult

The goal of education is to create men and women who are capable of doing new things Jean Piaget 262

We become ourselves through others Lev Vygotsky 270

A child is not beholden to any particular parent Bruno Bettelheim 271

Anything that grows has a ground plan Erik Erikson 272

Early emotional bonds are an integral part of human nature John Bowlby 274

Contact comfort is overwhelmingly important Harry Harlow 278

We prepare children for a life about whose course we know nothing Françoise Dolto 279

A sensitive mother creates a secure attachment Mary Ainsworth 280

Who teaches a child to hate and fear a member of another race? Kenneth Clark 282

Girls get better grades than boys Eleanor E. Maccoby 284

Most human behavior is learned through modeling Albert Bandura 286

Morality develops in six stages Lawrence Kohlberg 292

The language organ grows like any other body organ Noam Chomsky 294

Autism is an extreme form of the male brain Simon Baron-Cohen 298

Psychology of Difference: personality and Intelligence

Name as many uses as you can think of for a toothpick J.R Guilford 304

Did Robinson Crusoe lack personality traits before the advent of Friday? Gordon Airport 306

General intelligence consists of both fluid and crystallized intelligence Raymond Cattell 314

There is an association between insanity and genius Hans J. Eysenck 316

Three key motivations drive performance David C. McClelland 322

Emotion is an essentially unconscious process Nico Frijda 324

Behavior without environmental cues would be absurdly chaotic Walter Mischel 326

We cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals David Rosenhan 328

The three faces of Eve Thigpen & Cleckley 330

Directory 332

Glossary 340

Index 344

Acknowledgments 351

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