A monumental history of the nineteenth century, The Transformation of the World offers a panoramic and multifaceted portrait of a world in transition. Jürgen Osterhammel, an eminent scholar who has been called the Braudel of the nineteenth century, moves beyond conventional Eurocentric and chronological accounts of the era, presenting instead a truly global history of breathtaking scope and towering erudition. He examines the powerful and complex forces that drove global change during the "long nineteenth century," taking readers from New York to New Delhi, from the Latin American revolutions to the Taiping Rebellion, from the perils and promise of Europe's transatlantic labor markets to the hardships endured by nomadic, tribal peoples across the planet. Osterhammel describes a world increasingly networked by the telegraph, the steamship, and the railways. He explores the changing relationship between human beings and nature, looks at the importance of cities, explains the role slavery and its abolition played in the emergence of new nations, challenges the widely held belief that the nineteenth century witnessed the triumph of the nation-state, and much more.
This is the highly anticipated English edition of the spectacularly successful and critically acclaimed German book, which is also being translated into Chinese, Polish, Russian, and French. Indispensable for any historian, The Transformation of the World sheds important new light on this momentous epoch, showing how the nineteenth century paved the way for the global catastrophes of the twentieth century, yet how it also gave rise to pacifism, liberalism, the trade union, and a host of other crucial developments.
About the Author
Jürgen Osterhammel is professor of modern and contemporary history at the University of Konstanz. He is the coauthor of Globalization: A Short History and a coeditor of A History of the World.
Table of Contents
Preface xiIntroduction xvPART ONE: APPROACHESI Memory and Self-Observation: The Perpetuation of the Nineteenth Century 31Visibility and Audibility 52Treasuries of Memory and Knowledge 73Observation, Description, Realism 174Numbers 255News 296Photography 39II Time: When Was the Nineteenth Century? 451Chronology and the Coherence of the Age 452Calendar and Periodization 493Breaks and Transitions 524The Age of Revolution, Victorianism, Fin de Siécle 585Clocks and Acceleration 67III Space: Where Was the Nineteenth Century? 771Space and Time 772Metageography: Naming Spaces 783Mental Maps: The Relativity of Spatial Perspective 864Spaces of Interaction: Land and Sea 945Ordering and Governing Space 1046Territoriality, Diaspora, Borders 107PART TWO: PANORAMASIV Mobilities 1171Magnitudes and Tendencies 1172Population Disasters and the Demographic Transition 1243The Legacy of Early Modern Migrations: Creoles and Slaves 1284Penal Colony and Exile 1335Ethnic Cleansing 1396I nternal Migration and the Changing Slave Trade 1447Migration and Capitalism 1548Global Motives 164V Living Standards: Risk and Security in Material Life 1671The Standard of Living and the Quality of Life 1672Life Expectancy and "Homo hygienicus" 1703Medical Fears and Prevention 1784Mobile Perils, Old and New 1855Natural Disasters 1976Famine 2017Agricultural Revolutions 2118Poverty and Wealth 2169Globalized Consumption 226VI Cities: European Models and Worldwide Creativity 2411The City as Norm and Exception 2412Urbanization and Urban Systems 2493Between Deurbanization and Hypergrowth 2564Specialized Cities, Universal Cities 2645The Golden Age of Port Cities 2756Colonial Cities, Treaty Ports, Imperial Metropolises 2837Internal Spaces and Undergrounds 2978Symbolism, Aesthetics, Planning 311VII Frontiers: Subjugation of Space and Challenges to Nomadic Life 3221Invasions and Frontier Processes 3222The North American West 3313South America and South Africa 3474Eurasia 3565Settler Colonialism 3686The Conquest of Nature: Invasions of the Biosphere 375VIII Imperial Systems and Nation-States: The Persistence of Empires 3921Great-Power Politics and Imperial Expansion 3922Paths to the Nation-State 4033What Holds Empires Together? 4194Empires: Typology and Comparisons 4295Central and Marginal Cases 4346Pax Britannica 4507Living in Empires 461IX International Orders, Wars, Transnational Movements: Between Two World Wars 4691The Thorny Path to a Global System of States 4692Spaces of Power and Hegemony 4753Peaceful Europe, Wartorn Asia and Africa 4834Diplomacy as Political Instrument and Intercultural Art 4935Internationalisms and the Emergence of Universal Norms 505X Revolutions: From Philadelphia via Nanjing to Saint Petersburg 5141Revolutionsfrom Below, from Above, from Unexpected Directions 5142The Revolutionary Atlantic 5223The Great Turbulence in Midcentury 5434Eurasian Revolutions, Fin de Siècle 558XI The State: Minimal Government, Performances, and the Iron Cage 5721Order and Communication: The State and the Political 5722Reinventions of Monarchy 5793Democracy 5934Bureaucracies 6055Mobilization and Discipline 6166Self-Strengthening: The Politics of Peripheral Defensive 6257State and Nationalism 629PART THREE: THEMESXII Energy and Industry: Who Unbound Prometheus, When, and Where? 6371Industrialization 6382Energy Regimes: The Century of Coal 6513Paths of Economic Development and Nondevelopment 6584Capitalism 667XIII Labor: The Physical Basis of Culture 6731The Weight of Rural Labor 6752Factory, Construction Site, Office 6853Toward Emancipation: Slaves, Serfs, Peasants 6974The Asymmetry of Wage Labor 706XIV Networks: Extension, Density, Holes 7101Communications 7122Trade 7243Money and Finance 730XV Hierarchies: The Vertical Dimension of Social Space 7441Is a Global Social History Possible? 7442Aristocracies in (Moderate) Decline 7503Bourgeois and Quasi-bourgeois 761XVI Knowledge: Growth, Concentration, Distribution 7791World Languages 7812Literacy and Schooling 7883The University as a Cultural Export from Europe 7984Mobility and Translation 8085Humanities and the Study of the Other 814XVII Civilization and Exclusion 8261The "Civilized World" and Its "Mission" 8262Slave Emancipation and White Supremacy 8373Antiforeignism and "Race War" 8554Anti-Semitism 865XVIII Religion 8731Concepts of Religion and the Religious 8732Secularization 8803Religion and Empire 8874Reform and Renewal 894Conclusion: The Nineteenth Century in History 9021Self-Diagnostics 9022Modernity 9043Again: The Beginning or End of a Century 9064Five Characteristics of the Century 907Abbreviations 921Notes 923Bibliography 1021Index 1119