One of the principal concerns in recent years regarding the atmospheric environment has been the formation of ozone and other photo-oxidants over much of Europe in the summer. Ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a complex series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight from volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. As the reactions take place in air flows determined by the detailed meteorological situation, the measurement, interpretation, understanding and modelling of the levels, fluxes and origins of the ozone are extremely difficult. The present volume reviews several of the currently important questions and presents detailed reports from investigators all over the continent. As such, it provides insight into the current scientific views about ozone in Europe.
|Publisher:||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Series:||Transport and Chemical Transformation of Pollutants in the Troposphere , #6|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)|
Table of Contents1 An Overview of Tropospheric Ozone Research.- 2 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Tropospheric Ozone over Europe.- 3 The Emission and Distribution of Ozone Precursors over Europe.- 4 Photochemical Ozone Production Rates at Different TOR Sites.- 5 Exchange of Ozone Between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and the Free Troposphere.- 6 Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Regional and Global Tropopause Folding Occurrence.- 7 Ozone and its Precursors in Europe: Photochemical Production and Transport across Regional Boundaries.- Individual Reports from TOR Contributors.- 8 Ozone Monitoring and Measurements.- 8.1 Ozone Observations in the Free Troposphere: Results of the TOR Station No 25.- 8.2 Tropospheric Ozone and Precursors at the Porspoder Station, France.- 8.3 Ozone measurements in Zagreb and on Mount Medvednica in Croatia.- 8.4 Characteristics of the Tropospheric Ozone Content above Athens, Greece.- 8.5 Tropospheric Ozone Research And Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment, Mace Head, Ireland.- 8.6 Ozone Forecasting in the UK, 1993 and 1994.- 8.7 Ozone and precursor measurements in South Norway, Birkenes, Bj?rn?ya and Svalbard, Ny Ålesund, 1987-1994.- 8.8 Long Path DOAS Measurements of Ozone and Other Species at Cape Arkona, Rügen Island.- 8.9 Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents and their Relation to the Ozone Formation in Slovenia.- 8.10 Ozone Research at the Swedish Stations Åspvreten and Areskutan and the Activities of ITM-APL in TOR.- 8.11 A Summary of TOR Activities carried out by UEA during the Definition and Implimentation Phases of EUROTRAC.- 8.12 Ground-based Measurements of Ozone and Related Precursors at 47° N,11° E.- 9 Transport and Transformation of Ozone.- 9.1 Ozone in the free Troposphere over the North Atlantic: Production and Long-range Transport.- 9.2 Formation and Transport of Tropospheric Ozone in Hungary.- 9.3 Photo-oxidants and Precursors at Schauinsland, Black Forest: Chemistry and Transport.- 9.4 Long-range Transport of Precursors in Relation to Oxidant Occurrence and Formation: Results from the IVL TOR site at Rörvik, Sweden.- 10 Monitoring of Atmospheric Constituents.- 10.1 Intercomparison and Harmonisation of CO, CH4, and non-methane Hydrocarbon Measurements within TOR.- 10.2 Measurements of Trace Constituents at the High Alpine Background Station Sonnblick.- 10.3 Measurements of Low Molecular Weight Carbonyl Compounds.- 10.4 Photochemical Observations at Utö -a Moderately Polluted Site with a Pronounced Seasonal Cycle.- 10.5 Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds, Photochemical Oxidants and Products.- 10.6 Atmospheric Monitoring at the TOR Station in Tomsk.- 11 Vertical Profiles and Transport of Ozone.- 11.1 Distribution and Vertical Transport of Ozone in the Lower Troposphere determined by LIDAR.- 11.2 Vertical Profiles of Ozone and Meteorological Parameters at Uccle, Belgium.- 11.3 Vertical Soundings of Tropospheric Ozone with the IFU UV Lidar.- 11.4 Total Vertical Column Abundances of Atmospheric Gases Derived from IR Remote Solar Observations made at the Jungfraujoch Station.- 11.5 Vertical Distribution of Ozone and Water Vapour over Jülich, and the Evaluation of the ECC Ozone Sondes under Quasi Flight Conditions.- 12 Modelling Studies.- 12.1 EURAD in TOR: Simulation and Analysis of a Photosmog Episode.- 12.2 Continental Ozone Issues: Monitoring of Trace Gases Data Analysis and Modelling of Ozone over Europe.- 12.3 Model Studies of Ozone on Regional Scales in the Troposphere.- 12.4 Budget of Ozone and Precursors over Europe.- 13 TOR Publications 1988-1995.