The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality

The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality

by Dalai Lama


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780767920810
Publisher: Potter/Ten Speed/Harmony/Rodale
Publication date: 09/12/2006
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 224
Sales rank: 141,788
Product dimensions: 5.19(w) x 7.99(h) x 0.61(d)

About the Author

Tenzin Gyatzo, His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, is the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize and is both the temporal and spiritual leader of the Tibetan people. The Dalai Lama travels the world speaking on peace and interreligious understanding, giving Buddhist teachings, and meeting with political leaders as he works tirelessly on behalf of the Tibetan people. He resides in Dharamsala, India, and is the head of the Tibetan government-in-exile.

Read an Excerpt


I have spent many years reflecting on the remarkable advances of science. Within the short space of my own lifetime, the impact of science and technology on humanity has been tremendous. Although my own interest in science began with curiosity about a world, foreign to me at that time, governed by technology, it was not very long before the colossal significance of science for humanity as a whole dawned on me—especially after I came into exile in 1959. There is almost no area of human life today that is not touched by the effects of science and technology. Yet are we clear about the place of science in the totality of human life—what exactly it should do and by what it should be governed? This last point is critical because unless the direction of science is guided by a consciously ethical motivation, especially compassion, its effects may fail to bring benefit. They may indeed cause great harm.

Seeing the tremendous importance of science and recognizing its inevitable dominance in the modern world fundamentally changed my attitude to it from curiosity to a kind of urgent engagement. In Buddhism the highest spiritual ideal is to cultivate compassion for all sentient beings and to work for their welfare to the greatest possible extent. From my earliest childhood I have been conditioned to cherish this ideal and attempt to fulfill it in my every action. So I wanted to understand science because it gave me a new area to explore in my personal quest to understand the nature of reality. I also wanted to learn about it because I recognized in it a compelling way to communicate insights gleaned from my own spiritual tradition. So, for me, the need to engage with this powerful force in our world has become a kind of spiritual injunction as well. The central question—central for the survival and well-being of our world—is how we can make the wonderful developments of science into something that offers altruistic and compassionate service for the needs of humanity and the other sentient beings with whom we share this earth.

Do ethics have a place in science? I believe they do. First of all, like any instrument, science can be put to good use or bad. It is the state of mind of the person wielding the instrument that determines to what end it will be put. Second, scientific discoveries affect the way we understand the world and our place in it. This has consequences for our behavior. For example, the mechanistic understanding of the world led to the Industrial Revolution, in which the exploitation of nature became the standard practice. There is, however, a general assumption that ethics are relevant to only the application of science, not the actual pursuit of science. In this model the scientist as an individual and the community of scientists in general occupy a morally neutral position, with no responsibility for the fruits of what they have discovered. But many important scientific discoveries, and particularly the technological innovations they lead to, create new conditions and open up new possibilities which give rise to new ethical and spiritual challenges. We cannot simply absolve the scientific enterprise and individual scientists from responsibility for contributing to the emergence of a new reality.

Perhaps the most important point is to ensure that science never becomes divorced from the basic human feeling of empathy with our fellow beings. Just as one's fingers can function only in relation to the palm, so scientists must remain aware of their connection to society at large. Science is vitally important, but it is only one finger of the hand of humanity, and its greatest potential can be actualized only so long as we are careful to remember this. Otherwise, we risk losing our sense of priorities. Humanity may end up serving the interests of scientific progress rather than the other way around. Science and technology are powerful tools, but we must decide how best to use them. What matters above all is the motivation that governs the use of science and technology, in which ideally heart and mind are united.

For me, science is first and foremost an empirical discipline that provides humanity with a powerful access to understanding the nature of the physical and living world. It is essentially a mode of inquiry that gives us fantastically detailed knowledge of the empirical world and the underlying laws of nature, which we infer from the empirical data. Science proceeds by means of a very specific method that involves measurement, quantification, and intersubjective verification through repeatable experiments. This, at least, is the nature of scientific method as it exists within the current paradigm. Within this model, many aspects of human existence, including values, creativity, and spirituality, as well as deeper metaphysical questions, lie outside the scope of scientific inquiry.

Though there are areas of life and knowledge outside the domain of science, I have noticed that many people hold an assumption that the scientific view of the world should be the basis for all knowledge and all that is knowable. This is scientific materialism. Although I am not aware of a school of thought that explicitly propounds this notion, it seems to be a common unexamined presupposition. This view upholds a belief in an objective world, independent of the contingency of its observers. It assumes that the data being analyzed within an experiment are independent of the preconceptions, perceptions, and experience of the scientist analyzing them.

Underlying this view is the assumption that, in the final analysis, matter, as it can be described by physics and as it is governed by the laws of physics, is all there is. Accordingly, this view would uphold that psychology can be reduced to biology, biology to chemistry, and chemistry to physics. My concern here is not so much to argue against this reductionist position (although I myself do not share it) but to draw attention to a vitally important point: that these ideas do not constitute scientific knowledge; rather they represent a philosophical, in fact a metaphysical, position. The view that all aspects of reality can be reduced to matter and its various particles is, to my mind, as much a metaphysical position as the view that an organizing intelligence created and controls reality.

One of the principal problems with a radical scientific materialism is the narrowness of vision that results and the potential for nihilism that might ensue. Nihilism, materialism, and reductionism are above all problems from a philosophical and especially a human perspective, since they can potentially impoverish the way we see ourselves. For example, whether we see ourselves as random biological creatures or as special beings endowed with the dimension of consciousness and moral capacity will make an impact on how we feel about ourselves and treat others. In this view many dimensions of the full reality of what it is to be human—art, ethics, spirituality, goodness, beauty, and above all, consciousness—either are reduced to the chemical reactions of firing neurons or are seen as a matter of purely imaginary constructs. The danger then is that human beings may be reduced to nothing more than biological machines, the products of pure chance in the random combination of genes, with no purpose other than the biological imperative of reproduction.

It is difficult to see how questions such as the meaning of life or good and evil can be accommodated within such a worldview. The problem is not with the empirical data of science but with the contention that these data alone constitute the legitimate ground for developing a comprehensive worldview or an adequate means for responding to the world's problems. There is more to human existence and to reality itself than current science can ever give us access to.

By the same token, spirituality must be tempered by the insights and discoveries of science. If as spiritual practitioners we ignore the discoveries of science, our practice is also impoverished, as this mind-set can lead to fundamentalism. This is one of the reasons I encourage my Buddhist colleagues to undertake the study of science, so that its insights can be integrated into the Buddhist worldview.


I was born into a family of simple farmers who used cattle to plow their field and, when the barley was harvested, used cattle to trample the grain out of the husk. Perhaps the only objects that could be described as technological in the world of my early childhood were the rifles that local warrior nomads had probably acquired from British India, Russia, or China. At the age of six I was enthroned as the Fourteenth Dalai Lama in the Tibetan capital, Lhasa, and embarked upon an education in all aspects of Buddhism. I had personal tutors who gave me daily classes in reading, writing, basic Buddhist philosophy, and the memorization of scriptures and rituals. I was also given several tsenshap, which literally means "philosophical assistants." Their primary job was to engage me in debate on issues of Buddhist thought. In addition, I would participate in long hours of prayers and meditative contemplation. I spent periods in retreat with my tutors and sat regularly for two hours at a time four times a day in a meditation session. This is a fairly typical training for a high lama in the Tibetan tradition. But I was not educated in math, geology, chemistry, biology, or physics. I did not even know they existed.

The Potala Palace was my official winter residence. It is a huge edifice, occupying the entire side of a mountain, and is supposed to have a thousand rooms—I never counted them myself. In my spare moments as a boy, I amused myself by exploring some of its chambers. It was like being on a perpetual treasure hunt. There were all kinds of things, mainly the belongings of former Dalai Lamas and especially of my immediate predecessor, preserved there. Among the most striking of the palace's contents were the reliquary stupas containing the remains of the previous Dalai Lamas, reaching back to the Fifth, who lived in the seventeenth century and enlarged the Potala to its present form. Amid the assorted oddities I found lying about were some mechanical objects which belonged to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. Most notable were a collapsible telescope made from brass, which could be attached to a tripod, and a hand-wound mechanical timepiece with a rotating globe on a stand that gave the time in different time zones. There was also a large stash of illustrated books in English telling the story of the First World War.

Some of these were gifts to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama from his friend Sir Charles Bell. Bell was the Tibetan-speaking British political officer in Sikkim. He had been the Thirteenth Dalai Lama's host during his brief sojourn in British India when he fled in 1910 at the threat of invasion by the armies of the last imperial government of China. It is curious that exile in India and the discovery of scientific culture are things bequeathed to me by my most immediate predecessor. For the Thirteenth Dalai Lama, as I later found out, this stay in British India was an eye-opening experience, which led to a recognition of the need for major social and political reforms in Tibet. On his return to Lhasa, he introduced the telegraph, set up a postal service, built a small generating plant to power Tibet's first electric lights, and established a mint for the national coinage and the printing of paper currency. He also came to appreciate the importance of a modern, secular education and sent a select group of Tibetan children to study at Rugby School in England. The Thirteenth Dalai Lama left a remarkable deathbed testament, which predicted much of the political tragedy to come and which the government that succeeded him failed to understand fully or to heed.

Among the other items of mechanical interest acquired by the Thirteenth Dalai Lama were a pocket watch, two film projectors, and three motorcars—two Baby Austins from 1927 and a 1931 American Dodge. As there were no drivable roads across the Himalayas or in Tibet itself, these cars had to be disassembled in India and carried across the mountains by porters, mules, and donkeys before being put back together again for the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. For a long time these were the only three automobiles in all Tibet—and pretty useless they were, since there were no roads outside Lhasa on which one could drive them. These various items, the telltale signs of a technological culture, exercised great fascination on a naturally curious and somewhat restless boy. There was a time, I remember very clearly, when I would rather fiddle with these objects than study philosophy or memorize a text. Today I can see that these things were in themselves no more than toys, but they hinted at a whole universe of experience and knowledge to which I had no access and whose existence was endlessly tantalizing. In a way, this book is about the path to discovering that world and the wonderful things it has to offer.

I did not find the telescope a problem. Somehow it was quite obvious to me what it was for, and I was soon using it to observe the bustling life of Lhasa town, especially the marketplaces. I envied the sense of abandon with which children of my age could run about in the streets while I had to study. Later I used the telescope to peer into the night sky above the Potala—which offers, in the high altitude of Tibet, one of the most spectacular views of the stars. I asked my attendants the names of the stars and constellations.

I knew what the pocket watch was for but was much more intrigued by how it worked. I puzzled over this for some time, until curiosity got the better of me and I opened up the case to look inside. Soon I had dismantled the entire item, and the challenge was to put it back together again so that it actually worked. Thus began what was to become a lifelong hobby of dismantling and reassembling mechanical objects. I mastered this process well enough to become the principal repairer for a number of the people I knew who owned watches or clocks in Lhasa. In India later on, I did not have much luck with my cuckoo clock, whose poor cuckoo got attacked by my cat and never recovered. When the automatic battery watch became common, my hobby got much less interesting—if you open one of these, you find hardly any mechanism at all.

Figuring out how to use the Thirteenth Dalai Lama's two hand-cranked film projectors was much more complicated. One of my attendants, an ethnic Chinese monk, worked out how to make one of them function. I asked him to set it up so that I could watch the very few films we had. Later we got hold of a sixteen-millimeter electrically powered projector, but it kept breaking down, partly because the generator which powered it was faulty. Around this time, I guess in 1945, Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter, Austrians who had escaped over the Himalayas from a British prisoner of war camp in northern India, arrived in Lhasa. Harrer became a friend of mine, and I would occasionally turn to him to help fix the projector. We could not get many films, but numerous newsreels of the great events of the Second World War made it across from India, giving the story from an Allied perspective. There were also reels of VE Day, of the coronation of King George VI of England and Laurence Olivier's film of Shakespeare's Henry V, as well as some of Charlie Chaplin's silent movies.

What People are Saying About This

From the Publisher

“The Dalai Lama lost spiritual leadership in his own country, but now exercises it around the world. Like all good teachers, he comes to learn.  He found that what Buddhism lacked in his country was a fruitful interchange with reason and modern science. Here he fosters that exchange, at a time when some Christians have turned their backs on science and the Enlightenment. We are losing what he has gained.”
—Garry Wills, author of Why I Am a Catholic

“With disarming honesty, humility, and respect, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has explored the relationship between religion and science and suggested the way in which they can affirm and qualify each other’s insights. By juxtaposing traditional Buddhist teaching with the discoveries of modern physics and biology, he infuses the debate about such contentious issues as the origins of the universe, the nature of human consciousness, the evolution of species and genetic engineering with intimations of profound spirituality and shows how these questions can further our search for ultimate meaning. But above all, his gentle but insistent call for compassion is desperately needed in our torn and conflicted world.”
—Karen Armstrong, author of A HIstory of God and The Spiral Staircase

Reading Group Guide

Though his early education did not include a science curriculum, the Fourteenth Dalai Lama began his own study of the physical workings of the world at young age. Disassembling and reconstructing any mechanical object he could find, he tinkered his way to a basic understanding of physics and awakened an intellectual curiosity that would make him one of the most scientifically learned spiritual leaders in the world. Since those early days, the Dalai Lama has had access to some of the most remarkable minds in science, and has sought out opportunities to discuss scientific and metaphysical concepts with leading physicists and philosophers. The result is a profound knowledge of science and spirituality, and a conviction that neither one alone is sufficient to approach a real understanding of truth; reliance on religious teachings alone can lead to fundamentalism, and scientific advances uninformed by an ethical consciousness can bring about dangerous consequences for humanity. In The Universe in a Single Atom, the Dalai Lama draws on the lessons of both spirituality and scientific inquiry to discuss some of the most challenging and important questions in the study of reality. In this thoughtful picture of the evolution of modern science, collaboration is key on the road to intellectual and spiritual enlightenment.

1. Though the study of science and of Buddhism are parallel in many ways, the Dalai Lama repeatedly reminds us of one fundamental difference: the governing principle of Buddhism, which is to alleviate suffering. In what other ways do science and Buddhism differ in their aims? Are there areas of study in which it may be impossible for them to agree?

2. On pages 158-159,we are given clear instructions on the practice of meditation. According to this description, are there ways in which this practice complies with the study of science? How does it compare to Einstein's "thought experiments"?

3. The Big Bang theory, though supported by empirical evidence, presents significant challenges when viewed from various perspectives. From the scientific perspective, the law of cause and effect breaks down when considering how the nothingness before the Big Bang could "cause" such a monumental event. On the other hand, the assumption of a governing hand or previous matter giving rise to the Big Bang means that it could not have been the absolute "beginning." Discuss the shortcomings of each perspective. Do you find the necessary mystery surrounding the Big Bang cause enough to discredit it? Why or why not? Is this mystery more problematic for religion or science?

4. Based on the Dalai Lama's description of Buddhist philosophy, do you see his thorough study of science as necessary to his religious teaching, or is this occupation primarily a result of his personal interest? How is this study important to his practice of Buddhism? (Consider his comments on the academic curriculum of a Buddhist monk, as well as his understanding of the previous Dalai Lamas.)

5. The Dalai Lama makes a compelling case for the benefits of collaboration between religious and scientific scholars. Is this case uniquely applicable to Buddhism, or do you see collaboration as useful between science and all of the major religions? How would this endeavor differ in the cases of Christianity, Islam, Judaism, or Hinduism?

6. What concept in the book did you find most challenging?

7. Discuss the different ways in which Buddhism and biology define "life" and the theory of evolution. How significant are these difference in light of current ethical or political issues such as stem cell research?

8. Discuss the distinction between an objective and subjective reality--particularly the question of whether objects and beings have a distinct individual existence. Why is this an important question for Buddhism? Is it as critical to a scientific understanding of the world?

9. Is there a difference in the way the Dalai Lama conceives of empirical evidence from a Buddhist standpoint and the way science defines it?

10. What do you think of the Dalai Lama's assertion that scientific advances are outpacing ethical thought? Do you think it's necessary for the two to develop hand in hand, or is it acceptable for one to leap past the other from time to time?

11. The Buddhist scriptural teaching that the universe is ultimately a creation of the mind supports the suggestion of some thinkers that all matter and environment is the result of the observer. Is this a necessary correlation? How else could this teaching be interpreted?

12. Discuss the concept of karma, both as a broad concept and as it relates to specific thoughts or acts. How does the Buddhist definition compare to the popular understanding of karma? How do you see karma as relevant to your daily life?

13. The Dalai Lama discusses some of the difficulties of defining thought and subjective experience in a scientific way, despite significant advances in medical technology. What do you think would be the most informative way of studying thought and experience? Do you think these concepts can ever be defined in an accurate way?

14. The Buddhist concept of reality is divided into three realms: matter, mind, and abstract composites (similar to Popper's three "worlds"). How does this differ from the twofold description of reality as mind and matter? How important do you think this distinction is?

15. In what ways do you think society can help answer the Dalai Lama's call for accountability and ethics in science?

16. In a review of the book, George Johnson states in the New York Times Book Review (September 18, 2005) that the Dalai Lama believes in a version of intelligent design. Do you think this is an accurate assessment? How so or how not?

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The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality 4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 33 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This was a very interesting book. The Dalai Lama explores the realms of both science and spirutuality in a sense that applies to anyone of any particular faith. He embraces the issues of compasion, science, and spirutuality and stresses that they should be combined to focus on a clearer world view. The Dalai Lama, as such a spiritual leader, shows that the relationship between science and spirutuality shouldn't have a line drawn in the middle, and asks everyone on both sides to use both of these tools when looking for understanding.
3-2-Tango More than 1 year ago
The book starts off a bit slow and for those including myself who aren't scientifically inclined, it can be rather esoteric and highly metaphysical. Although if you stick through the first chapter or so, the Dalai Lama touches on some great insight and an awesome theory which I won't ruin for you. He also goes onto to touching upon human consciousness, focus and human cloning/eugenics. I am happily satisfied with the purchase and now have more of an understanding of Quantum Mechanics than I originally cared for.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This is a very well written book. The Dali Lama takes personal life experiences to show us how much has changed. The science of the book is pretty much high school 101 but the insight and application of, is world class. I would recommend this to anyone looking for some answers and more importantly for those looking to ask questions.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Finally, a spiritual leader who isn't afraid of the facts. The Dalai Lama brings science and spirituality together with compassion and an open-mind. He wasn't afraid to say that he didn't know something, and he was concise in the areas that he knew very well. Namely Buddhism. He showed that there are a lot of similarities between modern science and ancient and contemporary mysticism. Plus he made a comment that I think needs to be understood by all people of faith everywhere, ' defy the authority of emperical evidence is to disqualify oneself as someone worthy of critical engagement in a dialogue.'
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I have just finished this book.  I found it absolutely fascinating.  I am a  high school science teacher, so I am well-versed in the physical and biological sciences.  While reading this book, I learned that there is virtually no conflict between Buddhism and science.  Just that the approaches are different on some levels, but very similar on others, to learning about and knowing the world around all of us.  I recommend this book to everyone, and especially people in the sciences.  The Dalai Lama writes clearly and in very understandable terms.  I will be reading this book again.
AliciaRoman40 More than 1 year ago
The book engages one's attention by giving us, the reader, a personal look at the Dalai Lama's early childhood and how he was educated in order to continue with the legacy of his country. It also presented pros and cons that the world in general should be concerned about. Although it is not an easy book to read because of the scientific platform it evolves but it certainly is worth the extra slow pace needed since it is rich in information and insight.
puckrobin on LibraryThing 7 months ago
Regardless of creed, this book offers food for thought; the Dalai Lama shares his experiences encountering science and technology while engaged in the intensive philosophical and faith-based teaching that was his life from toddlerhood. Filled with personal anecdotes about his experiences around the world, meeting scientists and intelligentsia as well as his own observations on his studies, his faith and his experience in a tumultuous world, The Universe in a Single Atom offers hope that perhaps science and faith need not be at odds with each other.
manadabomb on LibraryThing 7 months ago
I will admit it took me a long time to read this. Even though I'm a science geek, a lot of the concepts do go over my head. It doesn't make it less interesting, it just takes me longer to try and grasp the concept or just give up and move on.HHDL takes some of the concepts of science and compares and contrasts them to Buddhist practices. If you are interested in either, then this is probably a good book for you. We're taken through the Big Bang vs the Buddhist beginningless universe, Quantum physics and relativity vs Buddhist emptiness, evolution vs karma, several chapters on sentient consciousness vs neurobiology and finally into genetics vs the entire human race.In the concepts I did grasp and make notes on, HHDL makes excellent parallels between the scientific world and the spiritual world, something that the majority of religions maintain cannot happen. HHDL is all to happy to point out the similarities and encourage scientific progress, but with warnings of keeping the human compassion and ethics along for the ride.HHDL has often said that every human on this earth is the same, and should all be treated with compassion. He was essentially proven right when the human genome was finally sequenced.In his own way, he implores (nicely and gently) for society to get better educated about science so that we don't fear it and so that we do not cross a line. "We must be willing to be revolted when science - or for that matter any human activity - crosses the line of human decency, and we must fight to retain the sensitivity that is otherwise so easily eroded."
InfinityOutlaw on LibraryThing 7 months ago
Interesting in concept, but it felt a little too broad for me. While it gave a good general outline and was fairly easy to grasp, I strongly wished for more explanation and details on several points. I felt that most of the chapters and ideas could easily have been expanded into their own books. So nice overall with interesting ideas, just not as much detail as I would have liked to have seen.
thatguynate on LibraryThing 7 months ago
Another transcript of one of the Dalai Lama's Mind and Life Conferences, this is an excellent attempt to bridge Buddhist thought and scientific teaching with the scientific findings of the West. Each topic begins with a brief introductory lecture followed by a discussion among the panel members, His Holiness' keen interest and critical mind ensures that all points from the scientific side are easily understood by those with little training in the field while at the same time guaranteeing the authenticity of the Buddhist teachings as well.Like most books from the Mind and Life series, this book shows what we all have to gain by bridging two seemingly different but quite complementary worldviews. For the inexperienced it provides an excellent description of the foundation of both sides, but much of the information may be redundant for those who already have some training. However, the true value lies in the mindset of the participants and the realization of what is to be gained by integrating East and West.
RMSmithJr on LibraryThing 7 months ago
Finally, a spiritual book that seeks to blend with science on touchstone opportunities instead of vigorously relying on the doctrine of denial. Ths book blends well with other contrary views on my bookshelf, most notably Richard Dawkin's The God Delusion, Judith's Barad's The Ethics of Star Trek, Carl Sagan's Science as a Candle in the Darkness et al. There is so much more I could re-read and write more on this book. Perhaps after a second reading after reflection through the passage of time, space and place.
clyde7 on LibraryThing 7 months ago
The point Dalai Lama makes in this book is that the first-person view of buddhism complements the third-person view of science. However, he does not give any concrete examples.
cdogzilla on LibraryThing 7 months ago
This, like "The Four Noble Truths" is a book I'll be thinking about and reacting to for a long time. While I still don't buy into the argument for the Buddhist theory of reincarnation, it's made more coherently than I've read before and that was really the only area I felt religion might be getting in the way of reason. This is one of those books I'd have no hesitation recommending to anyone asking for suggestions of something to read.
sneezypb on LibraryThing 7 months ago
Fantastic reflection on and insight to various popular topics in science such as the Big Bang, genetic modification of crops, and consciousness. Through these examples, he shows how science and Buddhism agree in areas and disagree in others. Throughout, he expresses the joy conversations with scientists have brought him in learning about another perspective and integrating that knowledge with his already extensive understanding of Hindu and Buddhist knowledge.It reads much like a lecture the Dalai Lama might have given. This book is easily accessible, flows easily, and stole my day.
vibrantminds on LibraryThing 7 months ago
The Dalai Lama takes a look into the world of science and how it affects humanity. From the world of atoms, quantum physics and the cosmos to the consciousness of our minds to genetic engineering, he views many aspects of science and how it relates to mankind. His question that he poses is whether science can provide a comprehensive understanding of the spectrum of reality and human existence. His conclusion is that science is close but it is not complete in being able to stand alone otherwise our existence would be limited to only the facts adduced by science. But together science and spirituality can bring us closer to meet the challenges of humanity and bring us closer to a unified world.
Patriette on LibraryThing 7 months ago
Other spiritual leaders need to open their minds and hearts as the Dalai Lama does here in this profound exploration. How refreshing to see this truly enlightened soul say that some of tenets of his ancient tradition need to change because of truths discovered in the scientific world! I would read anything this great soul writes.
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