Bioevaluation Of World Transport Networks

Bioevaluation Of World Transport Networks

by Andrew Adamatzky (Editor)

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Overview

Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a monstrous single cell well known for its task-solving abilities — solves computational geometry and logical problems, navigates robots and generates music.The slime mould could also build motorways, highways and expressways. It is used to analyse transport networks of Africa, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, The Netherlands, UK and USA. The largest cities are represented by oat flakes and the slime mould is inoculated in a capital. When all oat flakes are covered by the slime mould, the structure of the protoplasmic networks formed are analyzed. In the laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses, intriguing country-specific properties of the motorway networks are uncovered and compared with the man-made and slime mould networks. They are studied as proximity graphs, leading to hierarchies of complexity and bio-rationality of the motorways.The book will inspire novel and original thoughts, paradigms and approaches for re-evaluation of historical findings on the emergence of ancient roads and will help to design future transcontinental pathways. The book is self-contained and does not require any special training or knowledge. This lavishly illustrated text will be appreciated by readers from all walks of life.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789814407038
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date: 09/18/2012
Pages: 368
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

Contributors xv

1 Introduction Andrew Adamatzky 1

1.1 Motorways 1

1.2 Imitating road development 2

1.3 Slime mould 3

1.4 Physarum computing 6

1.5 What the book is about 8

2 Methods: how we conducted experiments and analysed their results Andrew Adamatzky 9

2.1 Obtaining P. polycephalum 9

2.2 Cultivation 10

2.3 Experiments 10

2.4 Physarum and motorway graphs 13

2.5 Proximity graphs 14

3 Trans-African highways Andrew Adamatzky Anne Kayem 19

3.1 Propagation from Cairo: three scenarios 22

3.2 Protoplasmic networks of trans-African highways 31

3.3 Lubumbashi and Lusaka to Harare and Beira is the strongest link 37

3.4 Summary 41

4 Tracing historical development of Australian highways Andrew Adamatzky Mikhail Prokopenko 47

4.1 Slime mould traces gold rush networking 51

4.2 Physarum reconstructs the Gabriel graph 57

4.3 Australian highways are a subnetwork of the Physarum network 60

4.4 Famine and large-scale contamination 62

4.5 Summary 68

5 Belgian transport networks: redundancy and dissolution Andrew Adamatzky Bernard De Baets Wesley Van Dessel 69

5.1 Bioessential motorways grow from Brussels 73

5.2 Physarum almost perfectly approximates Belgian motorways 76

5.3 Minimum spanning tree is not a subgraph of motorway graph 82

5.4 Dissolution: snelwegen or autoroutes? 85

5.5 Doel nuclear power plant and other sources of contamination 86

5.6 Summary 90

6 Brazilian highways from slime mould's point of view Andrew Adamatzky Pedro P. B. de Oliveira 93

6.1 Slime mould makes more highways 100

6.2 Comparing with proximity graph 103

6.3 Physarum and Angra nuclear power plant 107

6.4 Summary 108

7 Trans-Canada slimeways: from coast to coast to coast Andrew Adamatzky Selim G. Akl 113

7.1 Foraging from Toronto 115

7.2 Physarum almost approximates Canadian highways 118

7.3 On optimality of Canadian highways 120

7.4 Contamination from Bruce nuclear power station 121

7.5 Summary 124

8 Slime mould imitates highways in China Andrew Adamatzky Xin-She Yang Yu-Xin Zhao 127

8.1 From Beijing to Urumqi 129

8.2 Physarum graph belongs to motorway graph 136

8.3 Slime and man-made networks vs proximity graphs 138

8.4 Summary 140

9 Schlauschleimer auf Autobahnen: the case of Germany Andrew Adamatzky Theresa Schubert 143

9.1 Germany colonised 145

9.2 More connections in the west 149

9.3 Reichsautobahn rediscovered 153

9.4 Slimy proximity graphs 154

9.5 Mass migration due to contamination 155

9.6 Summary 159

10 Vie Physarale: Roman roads with slime mould Emanuele Strano Andrew Adamatzky Jeff Jones 161

10.1 From Piacentia to Bononia and from Genua to Florenzia are missing 164

10.2 Simulation: linking Bononia to Ariminum and Roma 167

10.3 Summary 171

11 Malaysian expressways: is there a logic behind them? Andrew Adamatzky Zuwairie Ibrahim Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin Badaruddin Muhammad 177

11.1 The coastal routes 180

11.2 Strong chains and isolated cities 187

11.3 Trees rooted in Rawan and Kuala Lumpur are minimal 188

11.4 Contamination in Kuantan 192

11.5 Summary 193

12 Physarum narcotráficum: Mexican highways and slime mould Andrew Adamatzky Genaro J. Martínez Sergio V. Chapa Vergara René Asomoza-Palacio Christopher R. Stephens 195

12.1 Mexico City to Monterrey in 12 h 196

12.2 Sparrning trees, Physarum and conquistadors 206

12.3 Summary 209

13 Physarum in The Netherlands: responding to the flood Andrew Adamatzky Michael Lees Peter M. A. Sloot 213

13.1 Amersfoort-Lelystad-Leeuwarden-Groningen 215

13.2 Redundancy of the transport network 225

13.3 Flooding: Nederlanders migrate to Deutschland 228

13.4 Summary 231

14 Rebuilding Iberian motorways with slime mould Andrew Adamatzky Ramon Alonso-Sanz 235

14.1 Segregating Portugal and Spain 237

14.2 Physarum shows higher optimality 246

14.3 Collapse of infrastructure 249

14.4 Discovering ancient roads 249

14.5 Summary 251

15 United Kingdom road planning with slime mould Andrew Adamatzky Jeff Jones 253

15.1 From London to Bristol and Glasgow 255

15.2 Physarum vs Department for Transport 259

15.3 Linking Newcastle to Glasgow 259

15.4 Salt in Leeds 262

15.5 Summary 264

16 Slimy interstates in the USA Andrew Adamatzky Andrew Ilachinski 269

16.1 Physarum and Eisenhower 271

16.2 Redundancy of Physarum 275

16.3 New York to Chicago is the strongest link 275

16.4 Reconfiguration in disasters 278

16.5 Summary 287

17 World colonisation and trade route formation Andrew Adamatzky 289

17.1 Scenarios of colonisation 292

17.2 Physarum includes spanning tree 303

17.3 The Silk Road and the Asian Highways 304

17.4 Summary 307

18 Biorationality of motorways Andrew Adamatzky Selim Akl Ramon Alonso-Sanz Wesley Van Dessel Zuwairie Ibrahim Andrew Ilachinski Jeff Jones Anne V. D. M. Kayem Genaro J. Martínez Pedro P. B. de Oliveira Mikhail Prokopenko Theresa Schubert Peter Sloot Emanuele Strano Xin-She Yang 309

18.1 Matching and economy 314

18.2 Average degrees 314

18.3 Maximum number of independent cycles 316

18.4 Average edge length 316

18.5 Average shortest paths 316

18.6 Diameters 317

18.7 Cohesion 317

18.8 The Harary index 318

18.9 Then II-index 319

18.10 The Randic index 319

18.11 Extremal regions 320

18.12 Biorationality of measures 323

18.13 Biorationality of motorways 323

18.14 Summary 325

Conclusion 327

Bibliography 331

Index 341

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