Delirium, (Confusional State) A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

Delirium, (Confusional State) A Simple Guide To The Condition, Diagnosis, Treatment And Related Conditions

by Kenneth Kee

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This book describes the Delirium, Diagnosis, Treatment and Related Conditions

I was going to write about confusion (like how blurred a person) but apparently delirium also has the same connotation but more severe.

Delirium is a medical disorder which causes sudden severe confusion due to rapid changes in brain function that occurs with physical or mental illness.


Delirium has most frequently been the result of physical or mental illness, and is usually temporary and reversible.

Many illnesses cause delirium.

The medical disorders are those that do not permit the brain to get sufficient oxygen or other substances.

Causes are:

1. Alcohol or sedative drug withdrawal

2. Drug abuse

3. Electrolyte or other body chemical disturbances

4. Infections such as urinary tract infections or pneumonia (more likely in people who already have brain damage from stroke or dementia)

5. Poisons

6. Surgery


The common signs of delirium are the decreased attention span and a waxing and waning form of confusion.

A rapid change between mental conditions (for example, from lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy) also occurs in delirium.

Symptoms are:

1. Clouding of consciousness or awareness

2. Difficulty maintaining or shifting attention (typically more alert in the morning, less attentive at night)

3. Confusion (disorientation) about time or place

4. Illusions - Changes in feeling (sensation) and perception

5. Hallucinations

6. Fluctuating levels of consciousness - Changes in level of consciousness

7. Dysphasia

8. Dysarthria - Disorganized thinking, such as talking in a way that does not make sense

9. Tremor - Movements triggered by changes in the nervous system

10. Asterixis in hepatic encephalopathy and uremia

11. Motor abnormalities - (may be slow moving or hyperactive)

12. Problem concentrating

13. Decrease in short-term memory and recall

14. Emotional or personality changes, such as agitation, anger, irritability, depression, overly happy

15. Changes in sleep patterns, drowsiness

16. Incontinence


The diagnosis of delirium is clinical.

There is no laboratory test that can confirm a diagnosis of delirium.

Identification of delirium is by:

1. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)

2. Delirium Symptom Interview (DSI)

3. Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU)

4. Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC)

The severity of delirium symptom can be checked by the Delirium Detection Scale (DDS) and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS).

Many of the tests done may have abnormal results:


The purpose of treatment is to control or reverse the cause of the symptoms.

The patient may be required to stay in the hospital for a short period.

Cessation or change of medications that make confusion worse may help to improve the mental function.

Medical disorders that make the confusion worse should be treated:

1. Anemia

2. Decreased oxygen (hypoxia)

3. Heart failure

4. High carbon dioxide levels (hypercapnia)

5. Infections

6. Kidney and liver failure

7. Nutritional disorders

8. Psychiatric conditions (such as depression)



Chapter 1 Delirium

Chapter 2 Causes

Chapter 3 Symptoms

Chapter 4 Diagnosis

Chapter 5 Treatment

Chapter 6 Prognosis

Chapter 7 Confusion

Chapter 8 Dementia


Product Details

BN ID: 2940155291367
Publisher: Kenneth Kee
Publication date: 06/10/2018
Sold by: Smashwords
Format: NOOK Book
File size: 119 KB

About the Author

Medical doctor since 1972. Started Kee Clinic in 1974 at 15 Holland Dr #03-102, relocated to 36 Holland Dr #01-10 in 2009. Did my M.Sc (Health Management ) in 1991 and Ph.D (Healthcare Administration) in 1993. Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 65. However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours in the afternoon. He first started writing free blogs on medical conditions seen in the clinic in 2007 on His purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiolographical account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog This autobiolographical account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Conditions” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on From which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 550 amazon kindle books and some into eBooks. He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books. He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures. Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple. For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients. The later books go into more details of medical conditions. The first chapter of all my ebooks is always taken from my blog A Simple Guide to Medical Conditions which was started in 2007 as a simple educational help to my patients on my first blog The medical condition was described simply and direct to the point. Because the simple guide as taken from the blog was described as too simple, I have increased the other chapters to include more detailed description of the illness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. As a result there are the complaints by some readers of constant repetitions of the same contents but in detail and fairly up to date. He has published 550 eBooks on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter. The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health conditions and not meant as textbooks. He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke. His clinic is now relocated to the Bouna Vista Community Centre. The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall. He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) starting with the Apple computer and going to PC. All the PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core. The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive. He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance. His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner. The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned. This book is taken from some of the many articles in his blog (now with 740 posts) A Family Doctor’s Tale. Dr Kee is the author of: "A Family Doctor's Tale" "Life Lessons Learned From The Study And Practice Of Medicine" "Case Notes From A Family Doctor"

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