The transition between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC was an era of deep economic changes in the ancient Near East. An increasing monetization of transactions, a broader use of silver, the management of the resources of temples through “entrepreneurs”, the development of new trade circuits and an expanding private, small-scale economy, transformed the role previously played by institutions such as temples and royal palaces. The 17 essays collected here analyze the economic transformations which affected the old dominant powers of the Late Bronze Age, their adaptation to a new economic environment, the emergence of new economic actors and the impact of these changes on very different social sectors and geographic areas, from small communities in the oases of the Egyptian Western Desert to densely populated urban areas in Mesopotamia. Egypt was not an exception. Traditionally considered as a conservative and highly hierarchical and bureaucratic society, Egypt shared nevertheless many of these characteristics and tried to adapt its economic organization to the challenges of a new era. In the end, the emergence of imperial superpowers (Assyria, Babylonia, Persia and, to a lesser extent, Kushite and Saite Egypt) can be interpreted as the answer of former palatial organizations to the economic and geopolitical conditions of the early Iron Age. A new order where competition for the control of flows of wealth and of strategic trading areas appears crucial.
|Publisher:||Oxbow Books Limited|
|Product dimensions:||6.70(w) x 9.40(h) x (d)|
About the Author
Dr. Juan Carlos Moreno García (Ph D in Egyptology, 1995) is a CNRS senior researcher at the University of Paris IV-Sorbonne, as well as lecturer on social and economic history of ancient Egypt at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) in Paris. He has published extensively on the administration, socio-economic history, and landscape organization of ancient Egypt, usually in a comparative perspective with other civilizations of the ancient world, and has organized several conferences on these topics.
Recent publications include Dynamics of Production in the Ancient Near East, 1300-500 BC (2016), L’Égypte des pharaons. De Narmer à Dioclétien (3150 av. J.-C.-284 apr. J.-C.) (2016) and Ancient Egyptian Administration (2013).
He is also chief editor of The Journal of Egyptian History (Brill) and area editor (“economy”) of the UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology.
Table of Contents
1. Economies in transition: trade, 'money', labour and nomads at the turn of the 1st millennium BC
Juan Carlos Moreno García
2. Oil and wine for silver? The economic agency of the Egyptian peasant communities in the Great Oasis during the Persian Period
3. Urban craftsmen and other specialists, their land holdings, and the Neo-Assyrian state
Heather D. Baker
4. Beyond capitalism – conceptualising ancient trade through friction, world historical context and bazaars
Peter F. Bang
5. Phoenician trade – the first 300 years
6. The contribution of pottery production in reconstructing aspects of local rural economy at the northern frontier of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
7. Silver Circulation and the development of the private economy in the Assyrian Empire (9th–7th centuries BCE): Considerations on private investments, prices, and prosperity levels of the imperial élite
8. Long-distance trade in Neo-Babylonian Mesopotamia: the effects of institutionnal changes
9. The empire of trade and the empires of force. Tyre in the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods
Caroline van der Brugge and Kristin Kleber
10. Temples and agriculture labour in Egypt, from the Late New Kingdom to the Saite period
Juan Carlos Moreno García
11. North-east Africa and trade at the crossroads of the Nile Valley, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea
12. Temples, trade and money in Egypt in the 1st millennium BC
13. From 'institutional' to 'private': traders, routes and commerce from the Late Bronze to the Iron Age
14. Intercultural contacts between Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula at the turn of the 2nd to the 1st millennium BC
15. Interactions between temple, king and local elites:the hanšû land schemes in Babylonia (8th–6th centuries BC)
John P. Nielson
16. Organization and financing of trade and caravans in the Near East
17. Aegean economies from Bronze Age to Iron Age: some lines of of development, c. 13th–7th BC
Julien Zurbach Development, 13th-7th c. BC”