Captured by the German SS, spent 1 ½ years of confinement in camps, liberated in 1945.
During confinement they were starved, beaten, humiliated and required to work long hours. As was typical of these camps they were held in lines for inspection and counting twice a day and these 'inspection' sessions could last for hours and all the while being exposed to harsh weather.
The treatment of the prisoners was so extreme that many of them wanted to die rather than go on and often they would ask to be shot.
Specific ways Joe was able to resist the forces that were designed to ultimately crush him were; possessing a faith in God, he said to one of the guards: "you can kill my body but you will never get my spirit", supporting each other in a small secret group prevented isolation and empowered people in the face of adversity and oppression, giving hope to others so they would not give up helped give him hope too.
Joe's stories can mentor others on how to increase chances of survival in extreme situations.