ISBN-10:
0262513447
ISBN-13:
9780262513449
Pub. Date:
08/21/2009
Publisher:
MIT Press
Exploring the Thalamus and Its Role in Cortical Function / Edition 2

Exploring the Thalamus and Its Role in Cortical Function / Edition 2

by S. Murray Sherman, R. W. Guillery

Paperback

Current price is , Original price is $38.0. You
Select a Purchase Option (second edition)
  • purchase options
    $38.00
  • purchase options

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780262513449
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 08/21/2009
Series: The MIT Press
Edition description: second edition
Pages: 512
Product dimensions: 6.60(w) x 8.70(h) x 1.20(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author


S. Murray Sherman is Maurice Goldblatt Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurobiology at the University of Chicago.


R. W. Guillery is affiliated with the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit in Oxford, previously taught in the United States (University of Wisconsin School of Medicine), the United Kingdom (University of Oxford), and Turkey, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionxiii
Preface to the First Editionxvii
Abbreviationsxxiii
1Introduction1
1.AThalamic Functions: What Is the Thalamus and What Does It Do?1
1.A.1The Classical View of the Thalamus1
1.A.2Defining Thalamic Nuclei5
1.A.3Major Topics Addressed in This Book5
1.BThalamic Nuclei and Their Connections: The Classical View8
1.CThe Thalamus as a Part of the Diencephalon: The Dorsal Thalamus and the Ventral Thalamus13
1.C.1The Dorsal Thalamus15
1.C.2The Ventral Thalamus20
1.DThe Overall Plan of the Next Ten Chapters22
2The Nerve Cells of the Thalamus27
2.AOn Classifying Relay Cells28
2.A.1Early Methods of Identifying and Classifying Thalamic Relay Cells28
2.A.2General Problems of Cell Classification33
2.A.3The Possible Functional Significance of Cell Classifications in the Thalamus38
2.A.4Classifications of Relay Cells Based on Dendritic Arbors and Perikaryal Sizes41
2.A.5Laminar Segregations of Distinct Classes of Geniculocortical Relay Cells48
2.A.6The Cortical Distribution of Synaptic Terminals from Relay Cell Axons52
2.A.7Perikaryal Size and Calcium-Binding Proteins61
2.BInterneurons63
2.B.1Interneuronal Cell Bodies and Dendrites63
2.B.2On Distinguishing Interneuronal Axons and Dendrites66
2.B.3The Axons of the Interneurons68
2.B.4Classifications of Interneurons69
2.CThe Cells of the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus71
2.DSummary75
2.EUnresolved Questions76
3The Afferent Axons to the Thalamus: Their Structure and Connections77
3.AA General View of the Afferents77
3.BThe Drivers81
3.B.1Identifying the Drivers and Their Functions81
3.B.2Identifying the Drivers on the Basis of Their Structure85
3.B.3The Origin of the Drivers and Their Heterogeneity90
3.B.4The Relationship of Two Driver Inputs to a Single Thalamic Nucleus: Does the Thalamus Have an Integrative Function?91
3.CThe Modulators92
3.C.1Corticothalamic Axons from Layer 6 Cells92
3.C.2Afferents from the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus to First and Higher Order Nuclei101
3.C.3Connections from Interneurons to Relay Cells105
3.C.4Other GABA-Immunoreactive Afferents107
3.C.5Cholinergic Afferents from the Brainstem108
3.C.6Other Afferents to Thalamic Nuclei110
3.DThe Arrangement of Synaptic Connections in the Thalamus111
3.D.1The Four Terminal Types111
3.D.2The Glomeruli and Triads118
3.EAfferents to the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus122
3.FAfferents to Interneurons125
3.GSome Problems of Synaptic Connectivity Patterns126
3.HQuantitative and More Detailed Relationships129
3.ISummary133
3.JUnresolved Questions134
4Intrinsic Cell Properties137
4.ACable Properties137
4.A.1Cable Properties of Relay Cells140
4.A.2Cable Properties of Interneurons and Reticular Cells143
4.A.3Implications of Cable Properties for the Function of Relay Cells and Interneurons144
4.BMembrane Conductances147
4.B.1Voltage Independent Membrane Conductances in Relay Cells148
4.B.2Voltage Dependent Membrane Conductances in Relay Cells149
4.B.3Interneurons173
4.B.4Cells of the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus174
4.CSummary and Conclusions177
4.DUnresolved Questions178
5Synaptic Properties179
5.AProperties Common to Synapses Throughout the Brain179
5.A.1Ionotropic and Metabotropic Receptors180
5.A.2Functional Differences Between Ionotropic and Metabotropic Receptors182
5.A.3Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity: Paired-Pulse Effects186
5.BSynaptic Inputs to Relay Cells190
5.B.1Driving Inputs to Relay Cells190
5.B.2Inputs to Relay Cells from Interneurons and Cells of the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus196
5.B.3Inputs from Cortical Layer 6 Axons to Relay Cells200
5.B.4Brainstem Modulatory Inputs to Relay Cells202
5.B.5Other Synaptic Properties205
5.CInputs to Interneurons and Reticular Cells208
5.C.1Glutamatergic Inputs208
5.C.2Cholinergic Inputs213
5.C.3GABAergic Inputs215
5.C.4Noradrenergic Inputs216
5.C.5Serotonergic Inputs216
5.C.6Histaminergic Inputs217
5.DSummary217
5.EUnresolved Questions218
6Function of Burst and Tonic Response Modes in the Thalamocortical Relay221
6.ARhythmic Bursting221
6.BEffect of Response Mode on Thalamocortical Transmission223
6.B.1Visual Responses of Geniculate Relay Cells223
6.B.2Responses of Relay Cells of Other Thalamic Nuclei233
6.CEffect of Response Mode on Transmission from Relay Cells to Cortical Cells234
6.C.1Paired-Pulse Effects in Thalamocortical Synapses234
6.C.2Relationship of Response Mode to Paired-Pulse Effects235
6.DControl of Response Mode239
6.D.1Brainstem Control242
6.D.2Cortical Control245
6.ESummary247
6.FUnresolved Questions250
7Drivers and Modulators253
7.ADrivers and Modulators in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus253
7.A.1Influence on Receptive Field Properties (Criterion 1)258
7.A.2Postsynaptic Receptors (Criterion 2)259
7.A.3Postsynaptic Potential Amplitude (Criteria 3-5)260
7.A.4Convergence onto Postsynaptic Target (Criterion 6)261
7.A.5Axon Diameter (Criterion 7)262
7.A.6Transmitters (Criterion 8)262
7.A.7Paired-Pulse Effects and Probability of Transmitter Release (Criterion 9)262
7.A.8Terminal Arbor Morphology (Criterion 10)263
7.A.9Innervation of the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus (Criterion 11)263
7.A.10Extrathalamic Targets (Criterion 12)264
7.A.11Cross-Correlograms Resulting from Input (Criterion 13)264
7.BOther Plausible Examples of Drivers Beyond First Order Thalamic Relay Cells269
7.B.1Thalamic Reticular Cells270
7.B.2Layer 5 Input as a Driver to Higher Order Thalamic Relays271
7.B.3Lateral Geniculate Input to Cortex as a Driver271
7.B.4Driver/Modulator Distinction for Branching Axons273
7.CTonic and Burst Modes in Thalamic Relay Cells274
7.DThe Sleeping Thalamus274
7.D.1Slow-Wave Sleep275
7.D.2REM Sleep277
7.ECan GABAergic Inputs to Thalamus Be Drivers?277
7.E.1Extradiencephalic GABAergic Inputs277
7.E.2Interneurons280
7.FImplications of Driver Concept for Cortical Processing281
7.GDrivers and Labeled Lines283
7.HModulators and Ionotropic Receptors284
7.ISummary285
7.JUnresolved Questions286
8Two Types of Thalamic Relay: First Order and Higher Order289
8.ABasic Categorization of Relays289
8.BEvidence in Favor of Two Distinct Types of Thalamic Relay294
8.B.1Structure and Laminar Origin of the Corticothalamic Axons296
8.B.2Functional Evidence for Two Distinct Types of Corticothalamic Afferent298
8.CSome Differences between First and Higher Order Thalamic Relays300
8.DDefining the Functional Nature of Driver Afferents in First and Higher Order Nuclei302
8.D.1Defining the Functional Role of Higher Order Relays303
8.EUnresolved Questions316
9Maps in the Brain317
9.AIntroduction317
9.BThe Nature of Thalamic and Cortical Maps318
9.CEarly Arguments for Maps320
9.DClinical and Experimental Evidence for Maps in the Geniculocortical Pathway324
9.D.1Establishing That There Are Maps324
9.D.2The Alignment of Maps with Each Other326
9.EMultiple Maps in the Thalamocortical Pathways330
9.E.1The Demonstration of Multiple Maps330
9.E.2Mirror Reversals of Maps and Pathways332
9.FAbnormal Maps in the Visual Pathways335
9.F.1Abnormal Pathways in Albinos336
9.F.2Experimental Modifications of the Thalamocrotical Pathway341
9.GMaps in Higher Order Relays342
9.G.1Maps in the Pulvinar and Lateral Posterior Nuclei342
9.HMaps in the Thalamic Reticular Nucleus348
9.IGeneral Conclusions354
9.JUnresolved Questions355
10The Thalamus in Relation to Action and Perception357
10.AIntroduction357
10.BEvidence for Branching Driver Afferents to First and Higher Order Thalamic Relays362
10.B.1Branching Ascending Driver Afferents to the Thalamus363
10.B.2Somatosensory Pathways364
10.B.3Mamillothalamic Pathways367
10.B.4Visual Pathways369
10.B.5Other Afferents to First Order Thalamic Nuclei372
10.B.6General Conclusions about Afferents to First Order Thalamic Relays373
10.CBranching Corticothalamic Axons from Layer 5 Cells375
10.DImplications for Corticocortical Processing378
10.ERelating Action to Perception381
10.FUnresolved Questions388
11Overview391
11.AThe Drivers392
11.BThe Modulators396
11.CThe Thalamic Nuclei397
11.DExtending the Functional Analysis from the Thalamus to the Cortex401
11.EWhat Does the Thalamus Do?402
References405
Index463

What People are Saying About This

Richard H. Masland

This is a superb work. The first edition was terrific. The second extends it to drive home a deeply fundamental point about the organization of the brain. This book must be read by all serious students of the nervous system.

Mike Gutnick

Sherman and Guillery are both pioneers of research on the thalamus. Together they have come up with a work that I consider a paragon of its type. It is factual, informative, well documented, and thought provoking, and will be most useful to students and researchers alike.

Endorsement

The thalamus is the gateway to cortical information processing, and the second edition of this book is a magnificent postern to our understanding the way in which it works. In particular, it allows theoretical neuroscience to greatly enhance our insight into cortico-thalamic feedback.

J. Leo van Hemmen, Department of Physics, Technical University of Munich

From the Publisher

This is a superb work. The first edition was terrific. The second extends it to drive home a deeply fundamental point about the organization of the brain. This book must be read by all serious students of the nervous system.

Richard H. Masland, Professor of Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School

The thalamus is the gateway to cortical information processing, and the second edition of this book is a magnificent postern to our understanding the way in which it works. In particular, it allows theoretical neuroscience to greatly enhance our insight into cortico-thalamic feedback.

J. Leo van Hemmen, Department of Physics, Technical University of Munich

Vernon B. Mountcastle

It is simply magnificent...All the chapters are excellent.

J. Leo van Hemmen

The thalamus is the gateway to cortical information processing, and the second edition of this book is a magnificent postern to our understanding the way in which it works. In particular, it allows theoretical neuroscience to greatly enhance our insight into cortico-thalamic feedback.

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews