Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Cultural Studies - East European Studies, University of North Florida, 2 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Since the uprising of the Decembrists in 1825, Russia had to deal with recurrent insurgence and turmoil due to popular Russian discontent with the prevailing Tsarist system, missing human rights, inequalities, and poverty. During the Crimean War between 1853 and 1856, Russia tried to expand its territory at the expense of the Ottoman Empire; however, the allies France, Great Britain and Piedmont-Sardinia defeated Russia soundly. It became apparent that Russia did not only lack behind in regard to infrastructure and latest technology but it also was not able to carry on its policy of serfdom while aspiring toward economic growth with the help of rapid industrialization. Turgenev's novel Fathers and Sons is set in the middle of these turbulent times with concentration on two major progressive movements, liberals and nihilists, opposing each other. The main protagonists are graduate Arkady Kirsanov and his friend Bazarov, prospective doctor of medicine, who Arkady sees as his mentor and teacher of nihilistic ideas. Both pay a visit to both their parents as well as new acquaintances in the country.