Data is becoming the world's new "natural resource," transforming industries and professions across the board. Smart, innovative organizations know that data is the new basis of gaining a competitive advantage. DB2 for z/OS remains the leading database for storing mission-critical data. This book explains how DB2 for z/OS and supporting products enable businesses to use their data to gain a competitive advantage.
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About the Author
Jane Man is a Senior Software Engineer in the DB2 for z/OS development team, and has worked on various features of DB2 for z/OS. Surekha Parekh is IBM’s World-Wide Marketing Program Director. She has more than 25 years' experience in B2B Market Management across a broad range of IT products and solutions with proven results. Pallavi Priyadarshini is an Architect and Product Manager at IBM India. Maryela Weihrauch is an IBM Distinguished Engineer.
Read an Excerpt
IBM DB2 for z/OS: The Database for Gaining a Competitive Advantage!
By Shantan Kethireddy, Jane Man, Surekha Parekh, Pallavi Priyadarshini, Maryela Weihrauch
MC Press Online, LLCCopyright © 2015 IBM
All rights reserved.
DB2 for z/OS and Cloud Computing
by Surekha Parekh and Maryela Weihrauch
Highly virtualized server that supports mixed workloads
Self-serving capabilities in private, membership or hybrid cloud environments
Divisional support of responsibilities
Customized implementations to suit your business
Platform foundation services for cloud use cases
What Is Cloud Computing, and What Is Driving This Market Trend?
Cloud computing is a platform that allows on-demand, pay-for-use access to applications or computing resources, as services, from the Internet. The era of cloud computing is a paradigm shift that is occurring as the result of severe market competition and a dramatically changing business environment. Firms are being prompted to adopt various state-of-the-art information solutions to improve their business operations. The drivers for implementing cloud computing services are:
Improve speed of business
Improve customer communications
Manage the increase in the variety, velocity and type of data
IBM Cloud Computing Is Designed for Business
Many industry-leading companies use IBM cloud computing.
Why? With the IBM cloud, you can unlock more value in your business and in the technology you already have. The cloud can integrate enterprise-grade services and help speed up the way you innovate.
What Is Data as a Service, and What Are the Drivers?
According to the analyst firm Ovum, data as a service (DaaS) is a natural and logical evolution of the as-a-service model. As the volume, variety, and complexity of data continue to increase, the skills that are necessary to master them become proportionally scarcer. Transferring the burden of data sourcing and management, and allowing users to focus on finding value in its use, require little endorsement for many organizations.
DaaS for business empowers businesses to use data as a standalone asset and to connect with partner data to make smarter decisions. IBM® DB2® for z/OS® DaaS is a service in the IBM cloud that is designed to offer variety, scale, and connectivity. It includes cross-channel, cross-device, and known and anonymous data without compromising reliability, availability and security.
DB2 for z/OS
Many of the world's top banks, retailers, and insurance providers store mission-critical operational data in IBM z Systems™ and DB2 for z/OS. DB2 for z/OS and z Systems are designed to handle rapidly changing, diverse, and unpredictable workloads while maximizing resource utilization and investment. Simply put, DB2 for z/OS is among the most scalable, reliable, and cost-effective data servers available.
The mainframe was originally designed to handle a complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. Virtualization of hardware and efficiency of operation have now become significant areas of impact in technology today.
IBM DB2 for z/OS includes a cloud solution that offers organizations the opportunity to remove expensive hardware and move to a responsive, virtual environment (Figure 1).
With DB2 for z/OS on the cloud, you can reduce cost and complexity in your IT infrastructure, simplify compliance, and get the most out of your core asset — your data, without impacting security. By moving to the cloud, you can transform and adapt while limiting risk and cost to achieve agility and efficiency by standardizing best practices.
Many enterprise companies consolidate their IT infrastructure, operating in a service-provider model for their business units. They already implemented methods to automate the delivery of IT solutions, mostly driven by the need to reduce the cost of the IT infrastructure.
IBM z Systems and the IBM products that run on these systems — including DB2 for z/OS — use cloud support. This support provides functionality for dynamic provisioning of IT solutions to potentially replace individual approaches and shift to a self-service mode of operation.
IBM DB2 for z/OS experts have prioritized the seamless transition of the solution to a cloud environment. In response to the growing demand for organizations to move to the cloud, IBM has placed essential focus on the technical support that is required to effect a successful transition.
Although the technical hurdles must be cleared with efficiency and proficiency, a successful transition to the cloud has another essential requirement. That is, use deployment on the cloud as a way to improve the overall consumability of DB2 for z/OS for clients, from usability to functionality to access to performance.
Discussions about cloud often revolve around a public virtual space. Looking closer, other types of cloud configurations are possible:
The private cloud — IT capabilities are provided as a service, over an intranet, within the enterprise and behind the firewall.
The hybrid cloud — Internal and external service delivery methods are integrated.
The public cloud — IT activities and functions are provided as a service over the Internet.
Whether your organization chooses a private, public or hybrid cloud, management and hosting options still remain open.
Selecting a managed private cloud or hosted private cloud depends on your database management strategy and budgetary concerns. Consider both areas when making the best choice for your company.
Enhancements in DB2 for z/OS in support of cloud use cases focus on requirements from enterprises that support private and hybrid cloud configurations.
DB2 for z/OS Cloud Provisioning
DB2 can be provisioned as a software stack, and variations can be accommodated upon installation. The DB2 environment scope can include:
A DB2 system
Migration to a new version of a DB2 system
A database in an existing DB2 system
Access to an existing database in an existing DB2 system
A copy of an existing database
Cloud Infrastructure in IBM z Systems
The appropriate cloud infrastructure should be designed to support the division of responsibilities and the ability to customize implementation. The functionality that is needed in support of the public cloud is different from the functionality that is needed in support of a private or hybrid cloud.
Enterprises often report that they need the speed of self -service, but that they would not compromise operational efficiency. Essentially, they are accustomed to a highly customized environment.
Additionally, IBM z Systems environments are highly virtualized and shared. Many subject matter experts are involved in cloud service provisioning use cases to cover different aspects of system management, such as storage, networking, and security.
The infrastructure for cloud use cases should be designed to seamlessly incorporate the separation of responsibilities.
IBM z/OS Management Facility
IBM z/OS Management Facility helps to improve the repeatability of tasks and improve efficiencies while saving time and workforce expenditures. z/OS Management Facility is also designed to use role-based assignments, creating clear workforce tasks while minimizing questions about who should perform which task.
z/OS Management Facility delivers the following features:
Workflow capability that is designed to help improve the ability to repeat tasks:
* Sequences the flow of tasks to manage the configuration of the system.
* Uses role-based assignments and issues notifications to alert users about their next steps in the process.
* Helps users simplify work through guided steps, assign responsibilities, and track progress, all by using the workflows task.
A guided flow through the steps to accomplish a task:
* XML metadata file that contains steps and details
* Wizards to update and submit jobs and to execute shell scripts and REXX execs
* Step features:
* Manual or automated in a wizard
* Dependency on other steps
* Various stages until completion
* Option to skip or override steps
* History of all activities in the workflow task
DB2 and z/OS Management Facility
To help you understand how z/OS Management Facility works with DB2 for z/OS, assume that an application needs a function that is provided in the latest version of DB2.
As a step of the application deployment, you need to migrate the existing DB2 system to that new version. Traditionally, this approach involves running many migration steps. For some of these steps, you must manually check or run them, which is a long and involved process.
Now, the migration steps can be expressed in customized z/OS Management Facility workflows, assigned to the responsible user ID and run automatically. Default z/OS Management Facility workflow artifacts for common DB2 provisioning use cases are introduced in DB2 11. You can customize them (for example: remove steps, add steps, or change steps) to reflect the specific configuration of a DB2 system or group of systems that support similar workload characteristics.
Additional Benefits and Features
A redeployment of your existing DB2 for z/OS environment to the cloud or another space is a significant transition. IBM is prepared and equipped to help your organization undergo such an undertaking.
Beyond the redeployment, DB2 for z/OS provides additional features and benefits:
Improved Java data access performance without changing code
Custom-developed, framework-based or packaged application
A bind tool
Static SQL execution value to existing DB2 for z/OS applications
More predictable and stable response times
Limits on user access to tables by granting execute privileges on query packages
Aid for forecasting accuracy and capacity planning
Decreased CPU cycles to increase overall capability
A choice between dynamic or static execution at deployment time
IBM DB2 for z/OS teams have a long history, experience, and technical expertise in working with physical and virtual DB2 for z/OS deployments, including transitions to public, private, or hybrid cloud environments. IBM is committed to supporting the entire spectrum of DB2 for z/OS deployments and transitions, and IBM's cloud-focused strategies are custom-implemented for organizations that are looking to make that transition.
For More Information
For more information about using IBM DB2 for z/OS in the cloud, see the following websites:
IBM DB2 for z/OS: ibm.com/software/data/db2/zos/family
IBM z/OS Management Facility: ibm.com/systems/z/os/zos/features/zosmf
IBM cloud computing: ibm.com/cloud -computing/us/enCHAPTER 2
Could Your Analytics Strategy Cost Your Business $100M? Learn How New Technologies Can Help Protect Your Analytics, Data, and Your Bottom Line
by Shantan Kethireddy
Your Data Is Not Safe
Technology trends and forces, including cloud, mobile and big data, can create large opportunities for your enterprise to exploit analytic insights. But the same things that enable these opportunities can skyrocket your risks if proper data security and governance controls are not in place.
As an example, in 2015 one of the largest health benefits companies in the United States reported that its systems were the target of a massive data breach. This breach exposed millions of records containing sensitive consumer information such as social security numbers, medical IDs and income information.
Various sources, including The Insurance Insider, suggest that this company's USD 100 million cyber -insurance policy would be depleted by the costs of notifying consumers of the breach and providing credit -monitoring services. And that policy payout doesn't consider other significant costs associated with a breach such as lost business, regulatory fines and lawsuits.
Cyber criminals now know the same thing every industry analyst knows — data is so important it has a value on the balance sheet. For that reason, every single industry has been attacked by hackers and experienced data breaches, including healthcare, government, banking, insurance, retail and telecommunications. Furthermore, once one company has been breached, hackers focus on other companies in that same industry hoping to exploit similar vulnerabilities.
So while this incident is one of the higher-cost examples, with a worldwide average data breach cost of USD 3.79 million, coupled with the long-term brand damage, loss of faith and customer churn, consider this question: how exposed is your business to a similar type of breach? To answer this question, you must first ask, "Where does the data that feeds our analytics processes originate?"
The Data Origination Challenge
For many enterprise clients, the answer to the data origination question is that the data comes from an IBM® z Systems™™™ mainframe. That is because organizations often run their mission-critical applications on z Systems to take advantage of its industry-leading service qualities such as availability, reliability, and Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL) 5+ security.
Unfortunately, a large percentage of these organizations then weaken that security by replicating or transferring sensitive data off their IBM z Systems mainframe. They do this for a variety of reasons, including realizing perceived cost savings, conducting analysis on massively parallel processing (MPP) systems, combining with data from external sources, or satisfying end-user technology preferences.
Whether it be quick, short online transaction processing (OLTP), analytical operational queries, or highly concurrent, lighter-weight workloads, the IBM DB2® for z/OS® database has historically handled mixed workloads well. However, to run CPU-intensive queries that involve processing large amounts of data in parallel, including analytics that group, sort, and aggregate, organizations using DB2 for z/OS would typically employ one of the following options:
Use data administration (indexing, partitioning, materialized query table) to address each individual query, which can be labor intensive.
Purchase additional hardware resources, which can be cost prohibitive.
Use a resource limit facility (RLF) or similar product to prevent these queries from consuming too many resources, which can shunt a potentially valuable or necessary workload.
Extract data to disparate systems capable of performing the CPU-intensive parallel processing, which is the most common approach because it appears to be less costly.
The reality is that replicating or extracting data off z System mainframes has led to a proliferation of data repositories containing personally identifiable information and silos of disparate people, processes, and infrastructure (PPI). Figure 1 illustrates this graphically.
For larger organizations, this structure can occur repeatedly. That is because each line of business (LOB) often has its own PPI that is typically managed and billed through chargeback. Each LOB then uses its own data repository, sourced from a z Systems platform, choosing PPI because it is available and familiar rather than the perceived challenge of employing the data from the source.
While often the default choice, deploying replicated and extracted data repositories can increase your organization's risk exposure across the spectrum. For this discussion, we'll focus on the four most crucial risk areas: system costs, data security, system performance, and data archiving.
Some organizations view reducing data breach liability as cost avoidance. Since IT architecture decisions are often made based on the best hard dollar cost solution, they may not account for cost avoidance best practices that include limiting the data breach threat. This mindset, along with the pervasive view that DB2 for z/OS is primarily useful for OLTP workloads, has contributed to the growth of disparate data repositories for analytics workloads.
New DB2 for z/OS technologies targeted at analytics applications are challenging this traditional view and transforming the hard dollar cost comparisons. As Figure 2 illustrates, comparisons now often reveal the hard dollar costs to extract, transfer, and load (ETL) or replicate data to a disparate environment for analysis exceeds the hard dollar cost to keep the data on z Systems and apply new technologies such as IBM DB2 Analytics Accelerator or IBM DB2 Value Unit Edition.
While the USD 333,479 expense is substantial, it is just one instance. A typical LOB organization will have multiple instances of each data repository for unit test, system test, user acceptance test, and production. Consequently, the costs — and the savings — are generally multiplied by a factor of four.
In this example, that means the traditional ETL approach costs almost USD 1 million more than executing analytics on the z Systems mainframe. For an enterprise with multiple LOBs, you can see how the extra annual costs for data extraction or replication can quickly add up to millions of dollars.
Excerpted from IBM DB2 for z/OS: The Database for Gaining a Competitive Advantage! by Shantan Kethireddy, Jane Man, Surekha Parekh, Pallavi Priyadarshini, Maryela Weihrauch. Copyright © 2015 IBM. Excerpted by permission of MC Press Online, LLC.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Table of Contents
About the Authors v
Introduction Surekha Parekh xiii
DB2 for z/OS and Cloud Computing Surekha Parekh Maryela Weihrauch 1
Introduction: What Is Cloud Computing, and What Is Driving This Market Trend? 1
IBM Cloud Computing Is Designed for Business 2
What Is Data as a Service, and What Are the Drivers? 2
DB2 for z/OS 2
Cloud Configurations 4
DB2 for z/OS Cloud Provisioning 4
Cloud Infrastructure in IBM z Systems 4
IBM z/OS Management Facility 5
DB2 and z/OS Management Facility 6
Additional Benefits and Features 6
Why IBM? 7
For More Information 7
Could Your Analytics Strategy Cost Your Business $100M? Learn How New Technologies Can Help Protect Your Analytics, Data, and Your Bottom Line Shantan Kethireddy 9
Introduction: Your Data Is Not Safe 9
The Data Origination Challenge 10
System Costs 11
System Cost Solutions 13
Data Security 15
Example Healthcare Company Analysis 16
Data Security Solutions 17
System Performance 18
System Performance Solutions 19
Data Archiving 19
Data Archiving Solutions 20
Performance, Security, and Savings 21
How IBM Can Help Your Bottom Line 21
For More Information 22
Predictive Analytics Using IBM SPSS Modeler in DB2 for z/OS Jane Man Lei Tian Liang Wang 25
Why DB2 for z/OS Customers May Want to Use SPSS and the Business Value 25
Setup and Configuration 26
Building a Simple Model Using Data Stored in DB2 for z/OS 27
Step 1 Configure the ODBC DSN 27
Step 2 Build a simple model using data from DB2 for z/OS 30
Scoring Inside DB2 for z/OS via Modeler UDF (Server Scoring Adapter) 38
Scoring Inside DB2 for z/OS via SQL Pushback 41
Publishing the Model into DB2 for z/OS 44
Creating an SQL Statement to Perform In-Database Real-time Scoring 48
Appendix: Load/Insert Data into DB2 for z/OS 52
Maximizing Mobile Initiatives with IBM DB2 for z/OS Surekha Parekh Mark Simmonds 55
The Need for Banks to Become Customer Centric 55
The Mobile Tipping Point 57
Mobile Redefines the Business and Responsibilities 58
Banking Your Business on a Mobile Strategy-the DB2 for z/OS Advantage 58
Case study: Reducing costs and accelerating time to value with analytics and mobile on the mainframe 59
The Need for Speed, Data Currency, and Security 60
Under the Hood of a Secure and Fraud-Resistant Mobile Transaction 61
Reuse Services and Data to Build Portable Mobile Apps 63
Reducing the Complexity of Multiple Mobile Platform Support 63
IBM z Systems-Designed for the Mobile Era 65
Case study: Growing the business with a secure multi-channel business 66
For More Information 67
DB2 for z/OS and Spark Integration DB2 and Spark-the Perfect Partner for Big Data Pallavi Priyadarshini 69
Introduction: What Is Spark? 69
IBM and Apache Spark: The Start of Something Big in Data and Design 69
Apache Spark and DB2 for z/OS 69
Blog 1 Using Spark's Interactive Scala Shell for Accessing DB2 Data Using JDBC Driver and Spark's New DataFrames API 72
Blog 2 Accessing DB2 Data from Spark via Standalone Scala/ Java Programs in Eclipse 77
Blog 3 Simplify Joining DB2 Data and JSON Data with Spark 88
Blog 4 Persisting Spark DataFrames into DB2 92