Internet Censorship: A Reference Handbook

Internet Censorship: A Reference Handbook

by Bernadette H. Schell


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Internet Censorship: A Reference Handbook by Bernadette H. Schell

Covering topics ranging from web filters to laws aimed at preventing the flow of information, this book explores freedom—and censorship—of the Internet and considers the advantages and disadvantages of policies at each end of the spectrum.

• Introduces key concepts and traces the evolution of Internet censorship from its earliest days

• Shows how anti-censorship groups—including the American Civil Liberties Union, the OpenNet Initiative, Reporters Without Borders, Anonymous, WikiLeaks, and the Censorware Project—band together to fight for freedom of information

• Explores the role of American businesses in facilitating Internet censorship abroad

• Shares opinions on Internet freedom versus Internet censorship from experts in a range of fields, including criminology, political science, philosophy, and psychology

• Includes an overview of Internet usage and penetration rates by region and an examination of the Freedom on the Net 2012 findings

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781610694810
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 06/30/2014
Series: Contemporary World Issues Series
Pages: 333
Sales rank: 1,284,218
Product dimensions: 14.10(w) x 21.40(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Bernadette H. Schell is vice provost at Laurentian University in Barrie, Ontario, Canada.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Background and History 3

Internet Censorship Defined 3

Censorship versus National Security, and Why There Will Never be Total Freedom of the Press or a Total Lack of Press and Internet Censorship 4

Adequate Information Release by Governments versus Internet Censorship: WikiLeaks, Manning, andSnowden 6

What the Internet is as Compared to an Internet 14

The Internet's Colorful History: Internet Development, Hacking Exploits, and (Eventually) Concerns about Internet Censorship 17

The Global Growth of Internet Usage 37

Gaining Authorized and Unauthorized Access to the Internet-and How Hacking May be Related to Internet Censorship 42

Online Users' Concerns about Censorship and the General State of Online Censorship in 2012 51

Conclusion 56

References 57

2 Problems, Controversies, and Solutions 65

A Look at PC, Mobile Phone, and Internet Usage Globally 68

Cultural and Legal Jurisdictional Factors Influencing the Digital Divide 71

The Differences between Freedom of Information, Internet Freedom, and Internet Censorship 81

Recent Trends in Internet Censorship According to the Freedom on the Net 2012 Report 90

Online Activities in Jurisdictions "Under the Microscope": Their Strong Support for Internet Openness and Their Hard-Core Tactics Used to Reinforce Internet Censorship 94

The Role of Web Filters and Firewalls, Business-Government Policies, and Laws Aimed at Internet Censorship 100

The Internet's Continuing Evolution: A Comparison of Internet Censorship in 2005 and 2012 106

Key Tactics That Have Restricted Free Speech and Encouraged Internet Censorship in Countries in Recent Years 109

How Can Progress Continue to be Made in Reducing Internet Censorship? 118

Conclusion 120

References 121

3 Perspectives 127

Hacktivism, Cyber Warriors, and Censorship Thomas J. Holt 127

Internet Censorship and the European Union: External Cohesiveness versus Internal Disharmony Michael Johns 133

30 Years after Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four: Pseudo-Privacy Online Michael Bachmann 138

Cybersecurity is Not Censorship Dorothy E. Denning 144

Between Liberty and Harmony: Philosophical Perspectives on Censorship in the Age of the Internet Alanda D. Theriault 147

4 Profiles 159

2600: the Hacker Quarterly 159

American Civil Liberties Union 160

Anonymous 162

Julian Assange (1971-) 164

Black Hat and DefCon Hacker Conferences 167

The Page-Brin Google, Inc. Team 169

Canada's Copyright Modernization Act of 2012 (Formerly Bill C-11) 171

Cran Campbell (1949-) 172

Center for Internet and Society 173

Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto 174

Copyright Armageddon: 3D Printers 175

Electronic Frontier Foundation 176

Freedom House 177

William H. Gates (a.k.a Bill Gates) (1955-) 178

Iceland's Planned Internet Porn Ban 179

Steve Jobs (1955-2011) and Steve Wozniak ("The Woz") (1950-) 180

Liu Xiabo (1955-) and Liu Xia (1959-) 182

Bradley Manning (a.k.a Chelsea 1988-) 183

OpenNet Initiative 185

Psiphon Software 186

Public Knowledge 187

Reporters Without Borders 188

Neda Salehi (1983-2009) 188

Yekaterina Samutsevich (1983-) 189

Edward Snowden (1984-) 191

Aaron Swartz (1987-2013) 192

The Censorware Project 195

Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement 196

WikiLeaks 198

Malala Yousafzai (1998-) 199

Bassem Youssef (1975-) 201

References 202

5 Data and Documents 209

Statistics on Internet Usage Worldwide 210

A Closer Look at the Freedom on the Net 2012 Findings 210

Internet Legislation in the United States Related to Privacy, Security, Trust, and Censorship 213

18 U.S.C. 213

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 216

Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 218

Gramm-Leach Bliley Act of 1999 (Financial Services Modernization Act) 220

Trademark Law, Patent Law, and the U.S. Anti-cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act of 1999 223

USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and PATRIOT Act II 224

Cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2002 or Homeland Security Act of 2002 225

PROTECT Act of 2003, COPPA of 1998, and CIPA of 2000 226

CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 228

cybersecurity Enhancement Act of 2005/2002 231

Recent Internet Laws Not Passed in the United States Related to Privacy, Security, Trust, and Censorship: CISPA, SOPA, and PIPA-and Why 231

SOPA and PIPA 234

Internet Legislation Attempts Globally related to Privacy Security, Trust, and Censorship: the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime 235

Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement 237

Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement 237

The United Nations: Unprecedented Power over Web Content and Infrastructure? 240

Conclusion 242

References 245

6 Resources 251

7 Chronology 297

Glossary 311

Index 323

About the Author 335

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