Java Concurrency in Practice: JAVA CONCURRENCY PRACT _p1

Java Concurrency in Practice: JAVA CONCURRENCY PRACT _p1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780132702256
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 05/09/2006
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 432
File size: 8 MB

About the Author

Brian Goetz is a software consultant with twenty years industry experience, with over 75 articles on Java development. He is one of the primary members of the Java Community Process JSR 166 Expert Group (Concurrency Utilities), and has served on numerous other JCP Expert Groups.

Tim Peierls is the very model of a modern multiprocessor, with BoxPop.biz, recording arts, and goings on theatrical. He is one of the primary members of the Java Community Process JSR 166 Expert Group (Concurrency Utilities), and has served on numerous other JCP Expert Groups.

Joshua Bloch is a principal engineer at Google and a Jolt Award-winner. He was previously a distinguished engineer at Sun Microsystems and a senior systems designer at Transarc. Josh led the design and implementation of numerous Java platform features, including JDK 5.0 language enhancements and the award-winning Java Collections Framework. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University.

Joseph Bowbeer is a software architect at Vizrea Corporation where he specializes in mobile application development for the Java ME platform, but his fascination with concurrent programming began in his days at Apollo Computer. He served on the JCP Expert Group for JSR-166 (Concurrency Utilities).

David Holmes is director of DLTeCH Pty Ltd, located in Brisbane, Australia. He specializes in synchronization and concurrency and was a member of the JSR-166 expert group that developed the new concurrency utilities. He is also a contributor to the update of the Real-Time Specification for Java, and has spent the past few years working on an implementation of that specification.

Doug Lea is one of the foremost experts on object-oriented technology and software reuse. He has been doing collaborative research with Sun Labs for more than five years. Lea is Professor of Computer Science at SUNY Oswego, Co-director of the Software Engineering Lab at the New York Center for Advanced Technology in Computer Applications, and Adjunct Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Syracuse University. In addition, he co-authored the book, Object-Oriented System Development (Addison-Wesley, 1993). He received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from the University of New Hampshire.


Table of Contents

Listings xii
Preface xvii


Chapter 1: Introduction 1

1.1 A (very) brief history of concurrency 1
1.2 Benefits of threads 3
1.3 Risks of threads 5
1.4 Threads are everywhere 9

Part I: Fundamentals 13

Chapter 2: Thread Safety 15

2.1 What is thread safety? 17
2.2 Atomicity 19
2.3 Locking 23
2.4 Guarding state with locks 27
2.5 Liveness and performance 29

Chapter 3: Sharing Objects 33

3.1 Visibility 33
3.2 Publication and escape 39
3.3 Thread confinement 42
3.4 Immutability 46
3.5 Safepublication 49

Chapter 4: Composing Objects 55

4.1 Designing a thread-safe class 55
4.2 Instance confinement 58
4.3 Delegating thread safety 62
4.4 Adding functionality to existing thread-safe classes 71
4.5 Documenting synchronization policies 74

Chapter 5: Building Blocks 79

5.1 Synchronized collections 79
5.2 Concurrent collections 84
5.3 Blocking queues and the producer-consumer pattern 87
5.4 Blocking and interruptible methods 92
5.5 Synchronizers 94
5.6 Building an efficient, scalable result cache 101

Part II: Structuring Concurrent Applications 111

Chapter 6: Task Execution 113

6.1 Executing tasks in threads 113
6.2 The Executor framework 117
6.3 Finding exploitable parallelism 123

Chapter 7: Cancellation and Shutdown 135

7.1 Task cancellation 135
7.2 Stopping a thread-based service 150
7.3 Handling abnormal thread termination 161
7.4 JVM shutdown 164

Chapter 8: Applying Thread Pools 167

8.1 Implicit couplings between tasks and execution policies 167
8.2 Sizing thread pools 170
8.3 Configuring ThreadPoolExecutor 171
8.4 Extending ThreadPoolExecutor 179
8.5 Parallelizing recursive algorithms 181

Chapter 9: GUI Applications 189

9.1 Why are GUIs single-threaded? 189
9.2 Short-running GUI tasks 192
9.3 Long-running GUI tasks 195
9.4 Shared data models 198
9.5 Other forms of single-threaded subsystems 202

Part III: Liveness, Performance, and Testing 203

Chapter 10: Avoiding Liveness Hazards 205

10.1 Deadlock 205
10.2 Avoiding and diagnosing deadlocks 215
10.3 Other liveness hazards 218

Chapter 11: Performance and Scalability 221

11.1 Thinking about performance 221
11.2 Amdahl's law 225
11.3 Costs introduced by threads 229
11.4 Reducing lock contention 232
11.5 Example: Comparing Map performance 242
11.6 Reducing context switch overhead 243

Chapter 12: Testing Concurrent Programs 247

12.1 Testing for correctness 248
12.2 Testing for performance 260
12.3 Avoiding performance testing pitfalls 266
12.4 Complementary testing approaches 270

Part IV: Advanced Topics 275

Chapter 13: Explicit Locks 277

13.1 Lock and ReentrantLock 277
13.2 Performance considerations 282
13.3 Fairness 283
13.4 Choosing between synchronized and ReentrantLock 285
13.5 Read-write locks 286

Chapter 14: Building Custom Synchronizers 291

14.1 Managing state dependence 291
14.2 Using condition queues 298
14.3 Explicit condition objects 306
14.4 Anatomy of a synchronizer 308
14.5 AbstractQueuedSynchronizer 311
14.6 AQS in java.util.concurrent synchronizer classes 314

Chapter15: Atomic Variables and Nonblocking Synchronization 319

15.1 Disadvantages of locking 319
15.2 Hardware support for concurrency 321
15.3 Atomic variable classes 324
15.4 Nonblocking algorithms 329

Chapter 16: The Java Memory Model 337

16.1 What is a memory model, and why would I want one? 337
16.2 Publication 344
16.3 Initialization safety 349

Appendix A: Annotations for Concurrency 353

A.1 Class annotations 353
A.2 Field andmethod annotations 353

Bibliography 355
Index 359

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Java Concurrency in Practice 4.3 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 3 reviews.
jrep on LibraryThing 8 months ago
This is a really crucial book for any Java developer. You may not realize you need it, but man oh man, you do!The Java culture and language development contain a trap: whereas it once was a commonplace that concurrent programming was too hard for "ordinary" developers, Java made it easy to do, and even in the beginning reasonably easy to do successfully.Times have changed. Java programs used to run on uniprocessor machines (where "concurrency" is more an aspiration than a reality), and the Java virtual machine used to be relatively simple. Nowadays, even an inexpensive laptop has at least two cores, and can achieve real concurrency among half a dozen Java threads. The JVM has evolved aggressively to use this power, taking liberal advantage of feature always contained in the Java language specifications, but until now not necessary embodied in the JVM implementation. As a result, more and more, your programs do not mean what they appear to mean, and less and less are you free to presume they do.Fortunately, the principal and supporting authors here are the powerful minds behind the growth of the JVM's concurrency capabilities. And, a bit miraculously, these great minds, deeply embedded in this complex code, can and do explain its surprises and mastery in a way that should be accessible to any competent programmer. This is not "for Dummies" stuff, but it's also "not rocket science" (quite). You can handle this.And, you must.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Guest More than 1 year ago
In Sun's official documentation for Java, there are aids on writing explicit multithreading programs. These are ok, as far as they go. But you might find that in an actual non-trivial, non-textbook case, strange things can happen. Deadlocking. Or perhaps low multicore usages. Or ... This book goes way beyond the Sun documentation. It looks at many aspects of concurrency. Including how to make a thread safe class. Which is one of the basic things you need, given that Java is object oriented, and a typical program makes classes specific to its needs. Here, the guidelines are concise, requiring that you focus on defining the class's invariants and the variables that define the state of the class. The book does not seem to explicitly talk about the concept of a finite state machine. But that is essentially what you might want to consider for each of your classes that will have multithreaded access. Also well worth attention is the chapter on multithread performance. Germane with the increasing availability of multicore processors. The chapter has a lucid explanation of the costs of having too many threads. You need to strive to minimise the maximum number of threads in your application. Context switching can be extremely costly in terms of time, and greatly reduce the overall efficiency.