MLA Handbook

MLA Handbook

by The Modern Language Association of America
MLA Handbook

MLA Handbook

by The Modern Language Association of America


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Relied on by generations of writers, the MLA Handbook is published by the Modern Language Association and is the only official, authorized book on MLA style. The new, ninth edition builds on the MLA's unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements--facts, common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date--that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, social media posts, dissertations, and more. With this focus on source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the skills of information and digital literacy so crucial today.

The many new and updated chapters make this edition the comprehensive, go-to resource for writers of research papers, and anyone citing sources, from business writers, technical writers, and freelance writers and editors to student writers and the teachers and librarians working with them. Intended for a variety of classroom contexts--middle school, high school, and college courses in composition, communication, literature, language arts, film, media studies, digital humanities, and related fields--the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook offers

  • New chapters on grammar, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, numbers, italics, abbreviations, and principles of inclusive language
  • Guidelines on setting up research papers in MLA format with updated advice on headings, lists, and title pages for group projects
  • Revised, comprehensive, step-by-step instructions for creating a list of works cited in MLA format that are easier to learn and use than ever before
  • A new appendix with hundreds of example works-cited-list entries by publication format, including websites, YouTube videos, interviews, and more
  • Detailed examples of how to find publication information for a variety of sources
  • Newly revised explanations of in-text citations, including comprehensive advice on how to cite multiple authors of a single work
  • Detailed guidance on footnotes and endnotes
  • Instructions on quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing, and avoiding plagiarism
  • A sample essay in MLA format
  • Annotated bibliography examples
  • Numbered sections throughout for quick navigation
  • Advanced tips for professional writers and scholars

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781603293525
Publisher: Modern Language Association
Publication date: 04/22/2021
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: eBook
Pages: 400
Sales rank: 74,757
File size: 10 MB

About the Author

Founded in 1883, the Modern Language Association of America provides opportunities for its members to share their scholarly findings and teaching experiences with colleagues and to discuss trends in the academy. MLA members host an annual convention and other meetings, work with related organizations, and sustain one of the finest publishing programs in the humanities. For more than a century, members have worked to strengthen the study and teaching of language and literature.

Table of Contents

1. Formatting Your Research Project

[1.1] Margins
[1.2] Text Formatting
[1.3] Title
[1.4] Running Head and Page Numbers
[1.5] Internal Headings and Subheadings
[1.6] Placement of the List of Works Cited
[1.7] Tables and Illustrations
[1.8] Lists
[1.9] Integrated into Your Prose
[1.10] Set Vertically
[1.11] Lists introduced with a complete sentence
[1.12] Lists that continue the sentence introducing them
[1.13] Paper and Printing
[1.14] Proofreading and Spellcheckers
[1.15] Binding a Printed Paper
[1.16] Electronic Submission
2. Mechanics of Prose
[2.1] Spelling
[2.2] Dictionaries
[2.3] Plurals
[2.4] Punctuation
[2.5] Commas
[2.6] When a comma is necessary
[2.7] Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses
[2.8] Between coordinate adjectives
[2.9] To set off parenthetical comments
[2.10] After long introductory phrases and clauses
[2.11] With contrasting phrases
[2.12] In series
[2.13] With dates and locations
[2.14] With nonrestrictive modifiers
[2.15] When a comma is incorrect
[2.16] Subject and verb
[2.17] Verb and object
[2.18] Parts of a compound subject
[2.19] Parts of a compound object
[2.20] Two verbs that share a subject
[2.21] Two subordinate elements that are parallel
[2.22] When a comma is optional
[2.23] With short introductory phrases and clauses
[2.24] Around specific words
[2.25] Before some coordinating conjunctions
[2.26] Semicolons
[2.27] Colons
[2.28] Dashes and Parentheses
[2.29] To enclose an interruption
[2.30] To prevent misreading
[2.31] To introduce an elaboration or an example
[2.32] To introduce a list
[2.33] Hyphens
[2.34] When to hyphenate compound adjectives before a noun
[2.35] Adverbs
[2.36] Number-noun combinations
[2.37] Prepositional phrases
[2.38] Clarity
[2.39] When not to hyphenate compound adjectives before a noun
[2.40] Adverbs
[2.41] Comparatives and superlatives
[2.42] Familiar compound terms
[2.43] Foreign language terms
[2.44] Proper nouns
[2.45] Hyphens before suppressed words
[2.46] Hyphens with prefixes
[2.47] Hyphens in fractions
[2.48] Hyphens versus en dashes
[2.49] Apostrophes
[2.50] Singular and plural nouns
[2.51] Proper nouns
[2.52] Nouns expressing shared possession
[2.53] Letters
[2.54] Plural abbreviations and numbers
[2.55] Quotation Marks
[2.56] To flag provisional meaning
[2.57] To mark translations of words or phrases
[2.58] Slashes
[2.59] Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points
[2.60] Italics in Prose
[2.61] Words and Phrases Referred to as Words
[2.62] Letters Referred to as Letters
[2.63] Foreign Words in an English-Language Text
[2.64] Capitalization of Terms
[2.65] English
[2.66] French
[2.67] German
[2.68] Italian
[2.69] Spanish
[2.70] Latin
[2.71] Names of Persons in Your Prose
[2.72] First Uses of Personal Names
[2.73] Surnames Used Alone
[2.74] English
[2.75] French
[2.76] German
[2.77] Italian
[2.78] Spanish
[2.79] Latin
[2.80] Asian languages
[2.81] Premodern names
[2.82] Transliterated Names
[2.83] Titles with Personal Names
[2.84] Suffixes with Personal Names
[2.85] Given Names and Personal Initials
[2.86] Names of Fictional Characters
[2.87] Names of Organizations and Groups
[2.88] Names of Literary Periods and Cultural Movements
[2.89] Titles of Works in Your Prose
[2.90] Capitalizing Titles in English
[2.91] Capitalizing Titles in Languages Other Than English
[2.92] French
[2.93] German
[2.94] Italian
[2.95] Spanish
[2.96] Latin
[2.97] Other languages in the Latin alphabet
[2.98] Languages in non-Latin alphabets
[2.99] Punctuation of Titles
[2.100] Serial comma
[2.101] Subtitles
[2.102] Alternative titles
[2.103] Dates appended to titles
[2.104] Multivolume works
[2.105] Punctuation around Titles
[2.106] Styling Titles
[2.107] Italicized titles
[2.108] Italicized titles of works contained in a larger work
[2.109] Titles in quotation marks
[2.110] Titles with no formatting
[2.111] Titles within Titles
[2.112] Surrounding title in quotation marks
[2.113] Surrounding title in italics
[2.114] Surrounding title with no formatting
[2.115] Quotations within Titles
[2.116] Foreign Language Terms and Titles within Titles
[2.117] Styling
[2.118] Capitalization
[2.119] Titles within titles
[2.120] Shortened Titles in Your Prose
[2.121] Subtitles
[2.122] Conventional forms of titles
[2.123] Very long titles
[2.124] Punctuating shortened titles
[2.125] Translating Titles in Languages Other Than English
[2.126] Numbers
[2.127] Use of Numerals or Words
[2.128] Number-heavy contexts
[2.129] Street addresses
[2.130] Decimal fractions
[2.131] Percentages and amounts of money
[2.132] Items in numbered series
[2.133] Large numbers
[2.134] Plural forms
[2.135] At the start of a sentence
[2.136] In titles
[2.137] Commas in Numbers
[2.138] Dates and Times
[2.139] Number Ranges
3. Principles of Inclusive Language
4. Documenting Sources: An Overview
[4.1] Why Plagiarism Is a Serious Matter
[4.2] Avoiding Plagiarism
[4.3] Careful Research
[4.4] Giving Credit
[4.5] Paraphrasing
[4.6] When to paraphrase
[4.7] How to paraphrase
[4.8] How to paraphrase and give credit
[4.9] Quoting
[4.10] When to quote
[4.11] How to quote and give credit
[4.12] When Documentation Is Not Needed
[4.13] Common Knowledge
[4.14] Passing Mentions
[4.15] Allusions
[4.16] Epigraphs
5. The List of Works Cited
[5.1] Creating and Formatting Entries: An Overview
[5.2] The MLA Core Elements
[5.3] Author: What It Is
[5.4] Author: Where to Find It
[5.5] Author: How to Style It
[5.6] One author
[5.7] Two authors
[5.8] Three or more authors
[5.9] Names not reversed
[5.10] Languages that order surname first
[5.11] Lack of surname
[5.12] Variant forms of a personal name
[5.13] Different spellings
[5.14] Pseudonyms and name changes
[5.15] When not to supply information, cross-reference,
or use the published form of a name
[5.16] Online handles
[5.17] Organizations, groups, and government authors
[5.18] Listing by name
[5.19] Avoiding redundancy
[5.20] Government authors
[5.21] Standardizing and supplying information
[5.22] Consolidating entries
[5.23] Title of Source: What It Is
[5.24] Title of Source: Where to Find It
[5.25] Title of Source: How to Style It
[5.26] Shortened titles
[5.27] Sections of a work labeled generically
[5.28] Description in place of a title
[5.29] Quoted text in place of a title
[5.30] Translations of titles
[5.31] Title of Container: What It Is
[5.32] Works that are self-contained
[5.33] Works with more than one container
[5.34] Determining when a website is a container
[5.35] Apps and databases
[5.36] Title of Container: Where to Find It
[5.37] Title of Container: How to Style It
[5.38] Contributor: What It Is
[5.39] Key contributors
[5.40] Key contributors in the Author element
[5.41] Other types of contributors
[5.42] Contributor: Where to Find It
[5.43] Contributor: How to Style It
[5.44] Labels describing the contributor’s role
[5.45] Capitalization of labels
[5.46] Multiple contributors in the same role
[5.47] Repeated personal names in an entry
[5.48] Version: What It Is
[5.49] Version: Where to Find It
[5.50] Version: How to Style It
[5.51] Number: What It Is
[5.52] Number: Where to Find It
[5.53] Number: How to Style It
[5.54] Publisher: What It Is
[5.55] Publisher: Where to Find It
[5.56] Books
[5.57] Websites
[5.58] Audio and visual media
[5.59] Publisher: How to Style It
[5.60] Capitalization
[5.61] Copublishers
[5.62] Divisions of nongovernment organizations as publishers
[5.63] Government agencies as publishers
[5.64] Terms omitted from publishers’ names
[5.65] Common abbreviations in publishers’ names
[5.66] Ampersands and plus signs in publishers’ names
[5.67] City of publication
[5.68] Publication Date: What It Is
[5.69] Publication Date: Where to Find It
[5.70] Books
[5.71] E-books
[5.72] News articles
[5.73] Journal articles
[5.74] Music
[5.75] Government documents
[5.76] Television episodes
[5.77] Publication Date: How to Style It
[5.78] Year
[5.79] Season
[5.80] Time
[5.81] Date range
[5.82] Approximate date given in source
[5.83] Uncertain date given in source
[5.84] Location: What It Is
[5.85] Location: Where to Find It
[5.86] Page numbers
[5.87] Online works
[5.88] Location: How to Style It
[5.89] Inclusive pages
[5.90] Descriptive label before page numbers
[5.91] Numerals for page numbers
[5.92] Plus sign with page number
[5.93] DOIs
[5.94] Permalinks
[5.95] URLs
[5.96] Truncating
[5.97] Breaking
[5.98] Including terminal slash
[5.99] Physical locations and events
[5.100] The Three Most Common Types of Entries
[5.101] Works in One Container
[5.102] Works in Two Containers
[5.103] Works That Are Self-Contained
[5.104] One Work Cited Different Ways
[5.105] Supplemental Elements
[5.106] Placement after Title of Source
[5.107] Contributor
[5.108] Original publication date
[5.109] Section of a work labeled generically
[5.110] Placement at End of Entry
[5.111] Date of access
[5.112] Medium of publication
[5.113] Dissertations and theses
[5.114] Publication history
[5.115] Book series
[5.116] Columns, sections, and other recurring titled features
[5.117] Multivolume works
[5.118] Government documents
[5.119] Placement between Containers
[5.120] Punctuation of Entries
[5.121] More Than One Item in an Element
[5.122] Supplied Publication Information
[5.123] Ordering the List of Works Cited
[5.124] Alphabetizing: An Overview
[5.125] Alphabetizing by Author
[5.126] Multiple works by one author
[5.127] Multiple works by two authors
[5.128] Multiple works by more than two authors
[5.129] Multiple works by a single author and coauthors
[5.130] Alphabetizing by Title
[5.131] Cross-References
[5.132] Annotated Bibliographies
6. Citing Sources in the Text
[6.1] In-Text Citations
[6.2] Overview
[6.3] What to Include and How to Style It
[6.4] Citing a work listed by author
[6.5] Coauthors
[6.6] Corporate authors
[6.7] Two authors with the same surname
[6.8] Two or more works by the same author or authors
[6.9] Citing a work listed by title
[6.10] Shortening titles of works
[6.11] Titles in quotation marks that start with a title in
quotation marks
[6.12] Titles in quotation marks that start with a quotation
[6.13] Using abbreviations for titles of works
[6.14] Shortening descriptions used in place of titles
[6.15] When author and title are not enough
[6.16] Page numbers and other divisions of works
[6.17] One-page works
[6.18] Quotations spanning two or more pages of a work
[6.19] Quotations from a nonconsecutively paginated work
[6.20] Numbered paragraphs, sections, and lines
[6.21] Commonly cited works
[6.22] Verse works
[6.23] Prose works
[6.24] Ancient and medieval works
[6.25] Scripture
[6.26] Works without numbered pages or divisions
[6.27] Volume numbers for multivolume nonperiodical works
[6.28] Time stamps
[6.29] Numbered notes in your source
[6.30] Punctuation in the parenthetical citation
[6.31] Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources
[6.32] Integrating Quotations into Prose
[6.33] Prose works
[6.34] Short quotations
[6.35] Long quotations (block quotations)
[6.36] Poetry
[6.37] Short quotations
[6.38] Long quotations (block quotations)
[6.39] Dialogue
[6.40] Drama
[6.41] Prose
[6.42] Poetry
[6.43] Placement of Parenthetical Citations
[6.44] Consolidating citations
[6.45] References to a single source
[6.46] References to multiple works citing the same idea
[6.47] Omitting Citations for Repeated Quotations and Terms
[6.48] Punctuation with Quotations
[6.49] Introducing quotations
[6.50] Quotations within quotations
[6.51] Marking the end of a quotation
[6.52] Periods and commas
[6.53] Other punctuation marks
[6.54] Capitalization with Quotations
[6.55] When to capitalize
[6.56] When to lowercase
[6.57] When to follow the case of your source
[6.58] Using an Ellipsis to Mark Material Omitted from Quotations
[6.59] Omission within a sentence
[6.60] Omission in a quotation of one or more sentences
[6.61] Omission in a quotation of poetry
[6.62] An ellipsis in the source
[6.63] Other Permissible Alterations of Quotations
[6.64] Emphasis
[6.65] Errors in the source
[6.66] Clarification
[6.67] Syntax
[6.68] What Not to Reproduce from Your Source
[6.69] Languages Other Than Modern English
[6.70] Accents
[6.71] Umlauts
[6.72] Ligatures
[6.73] Letters in older languages
[6.74] Orthography (spelling)
[6.75] Translations of quotations (bilingual quotations)
[6.76] Quotations from languages in non-Latin alphabets
[6.77] Indirect Sources
[6.78] Citations in Forms Other Than Print
[6.79] Slides
[6.80] Videos
[6.81] Web Projects
[6.82] Oral Presentations
7. Notes
[7.1] Bibliographic Notes
[7.2] Content Notes
[7.3] Styling of Notes
[7.4] Placement of Notes in the Text
Appendix 1: Abbreviations
Common Academic Abbreviations
Titles of Works
Appendix 2: Works-Cited-List Entries by
Publication Format
Appendix Contents
Work-Cited-List Entries
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