New Approaches to Image Processing Based Failure Analysis of Nano-Scale ULSI Devices introduces the reader to transmission and scanning microscope image processing for metal and non-metallic microstructures.
Engineers and scientists face the pressing problem in ULSI development and quality assurance: microscopy methods can’t keep pace with the continuous shrinking of feature size in microelectronics. Nanometer scale sizes are below the resolution of light, and imaging these features is nearly impossible even with electron microscopes, due to image noise.
This book presents novel "smart" image processing methods, applications, and case studies concerning quality improvement of microscope images of microelectronic chips and process optimization. It explains an approach for high-resolution imaging of advanced metallization for micro- and nanoelectronics. This approach obviates the time-consuming preparation and selection of microscope measurement and sample conditions, enabling not only better electron-microscopic resolution, but also more efficient testing and quality control. This in turn leads to productivity gains in design and development of nano-scale ULSI chips.
The authors also present several approaches for super-resolving low-resolution images to improve failure analysis of microelectronic chips.
- Acquaints users with new software-based approaches to enhance high-resolution microscope imaging of microchip structures
- Demonstrates how these methods lead to productivity gains in the development of ULSI chips
- Presents several techniques for the superresolution of images, enabling engineers and scientists to improve their results in failure analysis of microelectronic chips
Table of Contents1. Preface
2.1 Basics of Image Processing
2.2 The Problems of Shrinking Feature Size in ULSI Development and Failure Analysis
2.3 High Resolution Imaging of Metallic Structures
2.4 High Resolution Imaging of Non-Metallic Structures
2.5 Fabrication techniques in ULSI industry
3. New Image Processing Methods for Advanced Metallization in Micro- and Nano-Electronics
3.1 Characteristics of Metal Ultra-Thin Films Microstructures
3.2 Methods Based on Sample and Imaging System Knowledge
3.3 Methods Based on Microstructure Grain Size and Shape Range Knowledge
3.4 Increased Productivity by Obviating Steps of Selection of Measurement Conditions
3.5 Demonstration of Method Capabilities
3.5.1 Demonstration on Blurred HRSEM Images of Copper and Silver Films Microstructures
3.5.2 Demonstration on Indistinct Images of Filled Trenches and Vias
4. New Super Resolving Techniques and Methods for Micro-Electronics
4.1 The basics of super resolution
4.1.2 Super resolving hardware
4.1.3 Super resolving numerics
4.2 Numerical Approaches for super resolved imaging
4.2.1 High-Resolution Layout Image Transform
4.2.2 Low Resolution Image Transform (Experiment-based)
4.2.3 Results of the Comparison
4.3 Radon based super resolved imaging
4.4 Numerical approaches for characterization of ULSI circuits
4.5 Applications in Failure Analysis
4.6 Applications in Manufacturing and Testing