Sustainable Water and Soil Management

Sustainable Water and Soil Management

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2002)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642639616
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 04/11/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2002
Pages: 416
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Gendersensitive, Participatory Approach of Water and Soil Management.- 1 The International Women’s University — Framework for the Project Area Water.- 1.1 The Future of Higher Education (Aims).- 1.2 The International Women’s University and Intercultural Science.- 1.3 Junior Women Scientists.- 1.3.1 Selection Process in the Project Area Water.- 1.3.2 Profile of the Junior Scientists in the Project Area Water.- 1.3.3 Catering to Participants’ Needs: Service Centre.- 1.4 ifu as a Platform for Global Dialogue.- 2 ifu — an Intercultural Innovation in Higher Education ?.- 2.1 The Intercultural ifu.- 2.1.1 Internationalisation or Parochialisation?.- 2.1.2 The Socio-Political Context.- 2.1.3 The Feminist Agenda.- 2.1.4 Culture as Social Practice.- 2.1.5 The Many Differences.- 2.1.6 Intercultural Training at ifu.- 2.1.7 The Interculturality of Knowledge Production.- 2.2 Conclusion.- References.- 3 The Project Area Water.- 3.1 Water is Life — Background Information.- 3.2 Feminist Perspectives at the Action Level.- 3.3 The Concept of the Project Area Water.- 3.4 Curriculum of the Project Area Water.- 3.4.1 Knowledge Transfer.- 3.4.2 Practical Projects.- References.- Aspects of Water and Soil Management.- 4 Rural Development with Special Emphasis on Women, Water and Environment.- 4.1 An Experiment in the Creation of Knowledge, Skills and Attitude.- 4.2 Feminisation of Water Management — an Indian Concept.- 4.2.1 India — the Land and People.- 4.2.2 Rural Women’s Participation in Water Management in Maharashtra State.- 4.2.3 An Alternative Vision Planned and Directed by Rural Women.- 4.3 An Interdisciplinary and International Approach to Rural Development within ifu.- 4.3.1 Women and Rural Development.- 4.3.2 Rural Women — Water and the Environment.- 4.3.3 Skill Development.- 4.3.4 Exposure to Different Realities, Field Trips and Excursions.- 4.4 The ifu Experiment as a Beginning of a New Endeavour.- References.- 5 Water Treatment and Rainwater Harvesting.- 5.1 Overview.- 5.2 Water Disinfection Methods.- 5.2.1 Physical and Chemical Methods.- 5.2.2 Biological Method.- 5.2.3 Bacterial Contamination.- 5.3 Rainwater Harvesting — Two Scenarios.- 5.4 Description of the Project.- 5.4.1 Presentation of Excursions.- 5.4.2 Results.- 5.5 Rainwater Harvesting Project Plan Developed by the Women Junior Scientists.- 5.5.1 Rainwater Harvesting for Household Consumption (Philippines by Angelica R. Martinez).- 5.5.2 Case Study on Rainwater Harvesting (Albania by Gentiana Haxhillazi).- 5.5.3 Rainwater Harvesting — A Proposal for Secondary Schools (Tanzania by Eng. Immaculata Nshange Raphael).- 5.5.4 Rainwater Harvesting (USA by Margaret Fredricks).- 5.5.5 Promotion of Rainwater Harvesting in the Arid Area (Cameroon by Michele Denise Akamba Ava, Maroua Salak).- 5.5.6 Rainwater Harvesting Draft Plan for a Vegetable Garden (India by Nandini Sankarampadi, Sanjulata Prasad).- Rainwater Harvesting Plan for Loyola College (Nigeria by Theresa Odejayi, Yetunde Odeyemi, Helen Oloyede).- 5.6 Summary.- References.- 6 Wastewater Treatment.- 6.1 Mechanical Wastewater Treatment.- 6.1.1 Overview.- 6.1.2 Rakes and Strainers.- 6.1.3 Sand Catchers.- 6.1.4 Preliminary Treatment/Settling Tank.- 6.2 Biological Wastewater Treatment.- 6.2.1 Overview.- 6.2.2 Legal Requirements for Wastewater Treatment in Europe.- 6.3 Models for the Design and Simulation of WastewaterTreatment Plants (WWTPs).- 6.3.1 Overview.- 6.3.2 Dynamic Models.- 6.3.3 Use of Computer Programs.- 6.4 Evaluation of Centralised Wastewater Treatment.- 6.4.1 Comparison of Wastewater Treatment Plants.- 6.4.2 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Decentralised Wastewater Treatment — Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas.- 7.1 Situation.- 7.1.1 Principles and Spheres of Action.- 7.1.2 Decentralisation and User Participation.- 7.2 Nature-Based Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Methods as Components of Sustainable Concepts in Rural Regions — State of the Art.- 7.2.1 Introduction.- 7.2.2 Overview — Wastewater Quantities and Wastewater Agents in Rural Areas.- 7.2.3 Pre-Treatment.- 7.2.4 Planted Soil Filters.- 7.2.5 Wastewater Lagoons.- 7.2.6 Sludge Composting in Reed Beds.- 7.2.7 Practical Examples.- 7.3 Conclusions for Design Parameters.- 7.3.1 Characteristics of Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems which are Conducive to Sustainable Development.- 7.3.2 Impact of Gender Perspectives on Planning Criteria.- 7.4 Examples of Planning Ideas.- 7.4.1 Wastewater Purification for Remote Villages.- 7.4.2 Planning Ideas for Sensitive Regions in Rural Areas.- References.- 8 Alternative Technologies for Sanitation, Recycling and Reuse.- 8.1 Overview.- 8.2 The Composting Process.- 8.2.1 The Phases.- 8.2.2 Environmental Factors in Composting.- 8.2.3 Composting Micro-Organisms.- 8.2.4 Quality Criteria for Compost as a Product.- 8.3 Types of Toilets.- 8.3.1 Water Toilets.- 8.3.2 Waterless Toilets.- 8.4 Composting Toilet Systems.- 8.4.1 Dimensioning Composting Toilets.- 8.4.2 Dry Sanitation with Reuse.- 8.4.3 Dehydration Toilets.- 8.4.4 Decomposition Toilets.- 8.4.5 Types of Composting Toilet Systems.- 8.5 SIRDO.- 8.5.1 Pathogens Elimination.- 8.5.2 Social Evaluation.- References.- 9 River Development Planning.- 9.1 River Protection for the Balance of Nature.- 9.2 Hydraulics and River Protection.- 9.2.1 Some River Characteristics.- 9.2.2 River Discharge.- 9.2.3 The River Protection System of Lower Saxony/Germany.- 9.2.4 Making an Inventory in Situ.- 9.3 Stahlbach River Development Plan.- 9.3.1 The Elbe Catchment Area.- 9.3.2 The Stahlbach River.- 9.3.3 River Stahlbach Development Project (Project Modules).- 9.3.4 Results.- 9.4 Summary.- References.- 10 Water and Soil Towards Sustainable Land Use.- 10.1 Overview.- 10.1.1 Soils.- 10.1.2 Soil and Water.- 10.1.3 Global Significance.- 10.2 Project Water and Soil.- 10.2.1 Skills and Aims.- 10.2.2 Stahlbach Creek Project.- 10.2.3 Methodology.- 10.3 Results of The Project.- 10.3.1 Case Study: River Elbe Ecology Project.- 10.3.2 Description and Results of the Three Project Sites.- 10.4 Summary.- 10.4.1 Intergroup Interferences.- References.- Conclusions.- 11 Evaluation “There is No Unanimous Judgement on ifu”.- 11.1 Evaluation Concept.- 11.2 Bridging the Gap Between Mutually Unfamiliar Disciplines and Socio-Technical Innovation.- 11.2.1 Curriculum of the Project Area Water.- 11.2.2 Evaluation of the Curriculum from the Perspective of the Junior Scientists.- 11.2.3 From the Perspective of the Visiting Scholars: “You Can Feel It in the Air”.- 11.2.4 Description of the Study Venue — the Environment from the Perspective of the Junior scientists.- 11.3 Incongruity of the Perspectives: A Summary.- References.- 12 Future Perspectives for Sustainable Water and Soil Management.- 12.1 Internationally and Intercultural Work.- 12.2 Interdisciplinary Work and Gender Perspectives.- 12.3 Women’s International Network for Sustainability: A Post-ifu Initiative Promoting Equitable and Ecologically Sound Alternatives to Mainstream Development.- 12.3.1 “Development is Well-Being — Concerning the Individual as well as the Community Level — for the Past, Present and Future.” (Andrea Heckert, U.S. Mexico).- 12.3.2 “What Should I Say? Now We Are Developed?” (Christobel Chakwana, Malawi).- 12.3.3 “...I Would Like to Have a Computer, this Would Empower Me.” (Arig Bakhiet, Sudan).- References.- Appendices.- 13 Manual for Analysis of Soils and Related Materials.- 13.1 Introduction to Soil Exploration and Soil Sampling.- 13.2 Moisture Content and Dry Weight.- 13.3 Determination of Organic Matter.- 13.4 Determination of pH.- 13.5 Salinity of Soils (Electric Conductivity, EC).- 13.6 Cress Test (Germinability of Lepidium sativum).- 13.7 Determination of Total Amount of Micro-organisms in Solids (Microbial Number).- 13.8 Soil Respiration, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).- 13.9 Respiration Activity of Compost.- 13.10 Carbon Content.- 13.11 Determination of Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Procedure).- 13.12 C/N and C/P Ratio.- 13.13 Determination of Carbonate.- 13.14 Determination of Plant-Available Phosphorus and Potassium.- 13.15 Determination of Plant-Available Potassium and Magnesium (diluted with Calcium Chloride).- 13.16 Determination of N — min (NO3 and NO2).- 13.17 Determination of N-min (NH4).- 13.18 Determining Exchangeable Cations at Soil pH.- 13.19 Nitrohydrochloric Acid Disintegration.- 13.20 Sewage Sludge Regulations.- 13.21 Elution with Water.- 13.22 Soil Moisture Retention Capacity, pF Value.- 13.23 Soil Texture (Grain Size Distribution) 3.- 13.24 Grain Fractions and Texture Types.- References.- 14 Influencing BOD and N Removal Assessment of Important Parameters.- 14.1 Batch Tests as a Method for Classifying Nitrification and Denitrification Activities in Activated Sludge.- 14.1.1 Batch Tests for Nitrification (Aerobic).- 14.1.2 Batch Tests for Denitrification (Anoxic).- 14.2 Respirometry: Determination of the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR).- 14.2.1 Determination of the Respiration Rate of Activated Sludge by Measuring the O2 Utilisation Rate.- 14.2.2 Evaluation of the Recorded Data.- 14.2.3 Dependence of Oxygen Consumption on Toxic or Inhibiting Substances in Water.- 14.2.4 Further Applications for Oxygen-Consumption Measurements.- Vitae of Contributors.

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