The author examines the immense demands faced by ELL educators andoffers specific strategies to address these special challenges.
About the Author
In Jesness' twenty-five year career as an educator, he has worked with English learners in a number of environments. He has taught ESL in public middle and high schools, special education for bilingual children at the elementary level, and language arts and social studies in classes that included both English learners and regular education students. Jesness has also taught students privately, ranging from preschoolers to top executives of multinational corporations. Over the years, he has worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, for public schools near the Texas-Mexico border, for Berlitz Language Schools, and for small, privately owned language schools in Mexico and Japan.
Jesness holds a BA in English from the University of Minnesota, Morris, and earned an MA in Spanish and an ESL teaching endorsement from the University of Texas, Pan American. He was the first non-Hispanic to earn a graduate degree in Spanish literature from UT Pan American. Jesness currently lives in League City, Texas with his wife and three daughters, and teaches Spanish and ESL at Victory Lakes Middle School. His email address is email@example.com.
Table of Contents
PrefaceAcknowledgmentsAbout the Author1. The Joys and Challenges of Teaching English as a Second Language The Joys of Teaching ESL The Challenges of Teaching ESL Travel the World With or Without Leaving Your Classroom It's More Than a Job, It's a Mission2. Your Students ESL, ELL, LEP, and Other Acronyms Placement in Bilingual and ESL Programs SEP Students (Someone Else's Problem) Inclusion and Support in Regular Classrooms3. Your Toolbox The Textbook Other Books Realia: Pictures, Maps, Charts, Toys, and More Audio Tapes and CDs Gadgets Galore Paying for Your Tools Getting Help from Volunteers Getting Advice and Help from School Personnel4. How Much? How Soon? How Fast? BICS and CALP Pie-in-the-Sky Goals Is One Year Enough? When Should Students Exit to Regular Classes? Steep Hills and Frustrating Plateaus Motivation Inside and Outside of Class Sidebar: Working with Younger Students5. Using the Learners' Native Language in the Classroom Don't Force Them to Go Mute What Works Best in the Students' Native Language Consider the Language and Culture of the Community Use Time Limits Sidebar: Working with Younger Students6. Natural and Unnatural Approaches to Learning English The Natural Approach: Learning English by Hearing It and Speaking It Applying First Language Skills to Second Language Learning Balancing Experiential and Analytic Approaches Using Total Physical Response (TPR) Language in the Foreground and the Background Winning Over the Skeptics in Your School Sidebar: Working with Younger Students7. Building Vocabulary: They'll Need Lots Enjoying the Path to a Large Vocabulary Learning from the Movies Teaching Vocabulary with Picture Dictionaries Using Vocabulary from the Native Language
Using Vocabulary From the Native Language
Using Vocabulary from the Native Language Building Vocabulary with Word Blocks Idioms and Other Confusing Expressions Look It Up!: Learning English with Dictionaries Electronic Dictionaries Those Boring Vocabulary Lists Layered Vocabulary Learning Sidebar: Working with Younger Students
Sidebar: Working with Younger Students
8. Grammar: The Skeletal System of the Language Me Very Grammar When to Start Grammar Lessons English Grammar Isn't as Tough as We Think Freebies: When English Grammar Matches the Learner's Native Language The Garden Path to English Grammar Pronoun Cases Implicit and Explicit Grammar Instruction Pattern Practice Makes Perfect: Well, not Really, But It Works Grammar in Action: Questions, Answers, Jokes, and Conversation Tag, You're It: Converting Statements to Tag Questions Sidebar: Working with Younger Students9. Listening Skills: The Gateway to Language Learning with a Tape Recorder or CD Player Learning with Software: The Rosetta Stone, Instant Immersion, and Other Programs The Great ESL Film Festival Dictations Encouraging Listening as a Stand-Alone Skill Teaching with Minimal Pairs: Bit, Bet, Bait, Beet, Bite Sidebar: Working with Younger StudentsChapter 10. Now Say It: Teaching Spoken English The Direct Method Controlled Conversation Role Playing Student-to-Student Teaching Recitals Using Media and the Language Lab Teaching Pronunciation (Speech Therapists Can Help!) Using the International Phonetic Alphabet Error Correction: When and How Often Let Your Students Correct You Too Speaking Practice Outside of Class Sidebar: Working with Younger Students11. Teaching Reading When Students Are Struggling Readers in Their Native Language Quick-Start Phonics for English Learners The Constant Consonants Those Tricky Vowels Decoding Skills and Background Knowledge Graphic Organizers Sidebar: Working with Younger Students12. Writing It Right Getting Started Writing Begins with Spelling Gadgets and Media Again The Vanishing Word Technique Picture and Word Cards Punctuation and Capitalization Dictation In Their Own Words Sidebar: Working with Younger Students13. How We Know What the Students Know: Grading and Testing Grading in Mixed Ability Classrooms Individualized Education Plans Multi-Track Grading: Same Class, Different Goals No, You Aren't Cheating: What Counts for General Learners and College Prep Learners Keeping Noses to the Grindstone Testing Vocabulary Testing Spelling Testing Speaking and Listening Testing Grammar Self-Assessment: Giving Students Their Own Checklists Preparing Students for Standardized Tests (Please Don't) Sidebar: Working with Younger Students14. Teaching English Learners with Special Needs Prior Education, Semilingualism, and Learning Disabilities What Does Special Education Offer Your Students? When They Need a Special Education Referral But Haven't Gotten One Determining the Appropriate Program Sidebar: Working with Younger Students15. English Learners in Content Classes English Throughout the Curriculum Sheltered English Content Classes Content Objectives and Language Objectives A Sample Sheltered Science Lesson A Sample Sheltered Vocabulary Lesson Using Sheltered English to Teach and Practice Grammar When Are Students Ready to Wade into the Mainstream? The Power of Prior Knowledge The Power of Incidental Learning Reasonable and Unreasonable Modifications in the Inclusive Classroom The F Word (Failure) The Bright Side: Enriched Class Discussions Out-of-Class Support for English Learners in Regular Content Classes16. Helping Everyone Else Understand Your Students Attitudes Make the Difference: Racism and Xenophobia I'm Here, So Shut the Door Already Exposing Other Students to Your Students' Culture Avoiding Trivial Pursuit and Superficial Multiculturalism Illuminating with Literary Classics From Other Traditions Living Social Studies Graphic Art and Music Mutual Tutoring and Dual Immersion17. Preparing Yourself to Be a Better ESL Teacher Catching Up and Keeping Up with Advances in the Field Acquainting Yourself with Your Students' Culture Trying on Your Students' Shoes And If You Teach at the Base of the Tower of Babel...Vocabulary Lists Numbers 1 - 10 Shapes Numbers 11-20 People and Things Numbers by Tens Colors All Numbers to 100 U.S. Currency Time Classroom Nouns Classroom Verbs Large Numbers: Hundred and Thousands Arithmetic I: Addition and Subtraction Alphabet A - H Arithmetic II: Multiplication and Division Alphabet I - P School Supplies Alphabet Q - Z Computer Nouns Computer Verbs Human Body Family Home Nouns Home Verbs Park and Playground Pets and Pet Accessories Farm Animals Wild Animals World Geography: Continents and Countries U.S. Geography: Oceans, Rivers, Mountain Ranges, Borders Ordinal Numbers City Geography: Streets, Avenues, Buildings, Directions, Travel Fruit and Vegetables Meat and Seafood Bakery Products Dairy Products Women's Clothing Men's Clothing Emotions Baseball Possessive Pronouns Prepositions and Their ObjectsGlossaryRecommended ReadingRecommended WebsitesReferencesIndex