This handbook aims at focusing on the husbandry of the common water buffalo, (Bubalis bubalis). The book covers a broad range of topics such as the buffalo’s genetic evolution, cytogenetics, subspecies, breed diversification, feeding and metabolic specificity, adaptable response to environmental stress factors, welfare, dairy requirements and production, reproduction and embryo technologies, cryopreservation, sperm cell sexing, somatic cell cloning and transgenesis. Chapters presented and reviewed in this book have been by contributed by renowned scientists that have devoted years of research to the understanding of this species, and highlight the most recent advances in basic and applied science to unveil the understanding of physiological facets intrinsic to this animal species. The depth of the selected topics makes this book especially suited for readers of all academic levels of study. Researchers, students and professionals will find this book a useful guide to breeding and farming the water buffalo.