The relationship of theoretical and applied linguistics has lately prompted numer ous debates. This volume originated at one of them. The essence of most of the chapters, of all of them except Fraser's and Davies's, was actually presented at the Round Table on "The Relationships of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics," organized during the 7th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, held in Brus sels, in August 1984. Individually and collectively the chapters assembled here offer support to the idea that applied linguistics should not be juxtaposed to theoretical linguistics; it is a field of research with theoretical as well as applied aspects. Written by different authors from a wide variety of different countries, the chapters may at times express views that are not totally consistent. Nevertheless, we believe that the variability of viewpoints counts among the merits (rather than the defaults) of this internationally written and edited volume. It is our hope that it will prove stimulating to linguists and practitioners in related fields and instructive to students. We wish to express our thanks to Albert Valdman for the interest he has shown in the volume and to record our appreciation to our editors, in particular Eliot Werner and Declan Scully, for their tolerance and patience.
Table of ContentsI The Place of Applied Linguistics in the Science of Language.- 1 Applied Linguistics as Linguistics Applied.- Applied Linguistics or Applicable Linguistics?.- The Scope of Linguistics.- “Non-Applied” versus “Applied” Linguistics.- The Meaning of “Linguistics”.- Psycholinguistics, Sociolinguistics, and Applied Linguistics.- The Term “Applied Linguistics”.- Theory in Applied Linguistics.- Toward an Integrated Applicable Linguistics.- References.- 2 The Interrelations between Theoretical and Applied Linguistics.- Preamble.- Basic Dimensions in the Classification of Scientific Subdisciplines.- Limitations of Scope of Current Linguistic Theory.- Implications for Applied Linguistics of Lacunae in Contemporary Linguistic Theory.- Applied Linguistics as a Generator of Non-Applied Insight.- An Avenue toward a Sharper Delimitation of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics.- An Illustration of the Division from Contrastive Analysis.- The Essence of Application.- Concepts Related to Application.- Application versus Conceptual Borrowing.- Application versus Applicability.- Application versus Practice or Use.- The Position of Applied Linguistics within Linguistics as a Whole.- The Boundary between Pure and Applied Linguistics.- The Branching and the Matrix Model of the Organization of Linguistics.- Disciplinary Autonomy and Interdisciplinarity.- Summation.- References.- 3 The Need for Integration of Applied and Theoretical Linguistics: Research Objects, Research Goals.- Background and Present State: Linguistics, Science, and the Human Sciences.- Non Convergent Types of Relationship.- Paradigmatic Relationship.- Inclusive Relationship.- Derivative Relationship.- Adversary Relationship.- Goal-Oriented Relationship: A First Step toward Convergency.- Integral Relationship.- Substantiation.- Concluding Remark: Between Scientism and Relativism.- References.- 4 The Integrity of Applied Linguistics.- The Growth of Applied Linguistics.- Levels of Application.- Theory, Description, Application.- Opposition and Interdependencies.- A Case in Point.- Application and Use.- Conclusion.- References.- II From Application to Theory.- 5 Practice into Theory versus Theory into Practice.- Past Relationships of Theory and Application.- Abductive Approaches.- Social Constructivism.- Examples from Applied Linguistics in a Law Court Setting.- Hierarchical Inferencing.- The Speech Act of Complaining.- Conclusion.- References.- 6 The Erosion of the Boundaries between Theoretical and Applied Linguistics: Evidence from Speech Act Theory.- Preliminaries.- Speech Act Theory at the Interface of TL and AL.- The Interaction Between the Cooperation Principle and the Politeness Principle.- The Social Dimension of Speech Acts as the Object of Microsociolinguistics.- Individual Communicative Competence as the Object of Psycholinguistics.- On Language Structure and Language Use.- Conclusions.- References.- 7 Linguistics and Mother Tongue Education.- The Influence of Traditional Linguistics on MTE.- Linguistics Applied to MTE.- Theoretical Works.- Classroom Applications.- Causes of the Set-Back of Applied Linguistics.- The Paradigm Shift in the Study of Language.- Renewal of MTE.- Diversity of Applications.- The Pendulum Syndrome.- MTE: A Distinct Field of Study.- The “Application” Perspective.- The “Utilization” Perspective.- MTE as a Field Study.- References.- 8 How Language Planning Theory Can Assist First-Language Teaching.- Language Planning Theory.- Nationalism and Nationism.- Language Planning in Applied Linguistics.- The Status of L1 Language Teaching.- The Stages of Standardization.- Selection.- Codification.- Elaboration.- Acceptance.- What are the L1 Problems?.- Four Disputable Areas.- Literature.- Creativity.- Critical Discrimination.- Classroom Language.- The Language Planner’s Approach to These Dispute Areas.- Creativity Revisited.- Critical Discrimination Revisited.- Classroom Talk.- Results of Two Language Planners Views of These Disputes.- The Proper Concerns of First-Language Teaching.- References.- 9 Disputing: The Challenge of Adversative Discourse to the Cooperative Principle.- The Inadequacy of the Cooperative Principle for Dispute Resolution.- Sources of Miscommunication.- The Context of Adversative Discourse.- The Phases of Negotiation.- Approach to Negotiation.- Linguistic Aspects of Negotiation.- Conclusion.- References.