This book concerns the institutionalisation of the physical sciences. The book breaks with the established tradition in the history, philosophy and sociology of sciences by attempting to capture both the cognitive and social dimensions of institutionalisation in one unified analysis. This unifica tion has been achieved through a treatment of research as goal directed social action - a theme which has been developed both theoretically and empirically. The analysis presented is therefore unique in its breadth of focus and shows how the traditional concerns of sociology with generalised macro-structures of meaning and action can be related to the lifeworlds of individual scientists. The sociology of the sciences is still today a relative newcomer to the field of sciences studies which has traditionally been dominated by the history and philosophy of the sciences. I hope that this book reflects the excitement I experienced in being able to respond to the debates and concepts which erupted in that particularly fertile period follOwing the publication of Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962 - a period from which a cogni tively oriented sociology of the sciences was to emerge as a serious challenger to orthodoxies in the history, philosophy and sociology of sciences.
Table of Contents1. The Social Construction of Science.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. The Theoretical Perspective Developed in this Book.- 2. What is Science?.- 2.1. The Need for Precise Definitions.- 2.2. Structure and Meaning in the Analysis of Science.- 2.3. Science and Its Sub-Universes of Meaning.- 2.4. Science as a System of Theoretical Production.- 2.5. Social Control in Science.- 2.6. Research.- 2.7. Types of Research: Basic Research vs. Practice Oriented Research.- 2.8. The Negotiation of Meaning in Science.- 2.9. Summary.- 3. Science and Professionalism.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Science and Professionalism.- 3.3. The Role of Autonomy in Science.- 3.4. Scientific Autonomy and Politics.- 3.5. The Inertia of Contemporary Science.- 3.6. The Professional Orientational Reference Group.- 3.7. The Context of Legitimation vs. the Context of Research.- 3.8. Professionalism and the Articulation of Beliefs in an Era of Resource Scarcity.- 4. Scientists Have Goals.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. The ‘Common-Sense’ Notion of Goals in Scientific Research.- 4.3. The Institutional Context of Goal Direction in the Physical Sciences.- 4.4. The Political Receptivity of Scientific Fields.- 4.5. What is a Goal?.- 4.6. What Are the Goals of Science? An Australian Case Study.- 4.6.1. The Image of a Directed Science An Australian Example According to Project Score.- 4.6.2. A Closer Look at Some of the Goals of Australian Scientific Research.- 4.6.3. Conclusions.- 5. Cognitive and Social Dimensions in the Analysis of Science.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Cognitive and Social Institutionalisation.- 5.3. The Cognitive Field of a Scientist.- 5.4. Cognitive Structures in the Context of Research.- 5.5. Operationalising Social and Cognitive Concepts.- 5.5.1. Different Levels of Abstraction in a Research Account.- 5.6. Some Methodological Observations About My Own Research.- 5.6.1. The Process of Selection of the Research Groups to Be Investigated.- 5.6.2. The Method of Repeated Feedback Used in the Research.- 6. Research and Its Legitimation: Two Cognitively Oriented Case Studies.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Some Methodological Details.- 6.2.1. Summary of the Organisation of the Fieldwork and the Techniques Used.- 6.3. Case Study 1: The Selective Surfaces Research Group (SSG).- 6.3.1. The Institutional Marginality of the SSG.- 6.3.2. The SSG in the Context of Research.- 6.3.3. Social Factors Incorporated in the Goals of the SSG.- 6.3.4. The SSG in the Context of Legitimation.- 6.3.5. Conflicts of Relevance and the Institutionalisation of a Context of Legitimation.- 6.4. Case Study 2: The Dopamine/Octopamine Research Group (DOG).- 6.4.1. The Institutional Marginality of the DOG.- 6.4.2. The DOG in the Context of Research.- 6.4.3. Social Factors Incorporated in the Goals of the DOG.- 6.4.4. The DOG in the Context of Legitimation.- 6.4.5. Confusion about‘Schizophrenia’.- 6.5. Comparing the Two Case Studies.- 6.5.1. Comparing Cognitive Fields Different Levels of Task Certainty.- 6.5.2. The Context of Legitimation and Levels of Certainty.- 6.5.3. Social Factors and the Goals of Research.- 6.5.4. Concluding Hypotheses.- 7. General Conclusions.- 7.1. Suggestions for Future Work.- Notes.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.