Voice over IP Fundamentals / Edition 2

Voice over IP Fundamentals / Edition 2

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Voice over IP Fundamentals / Edition 2

A systematic approach to understanding the basics of voice over IP

  • Understand the basics of enterprise and public telephony networking, IP networking, and how voice is transported over IP networks
  • Learn the various caveats of converging voice and data networks
  • Examine the basic VoIP signaling protocols (H.323, MGCP/H.248, SIP) and primary legacy voice signaling protocols (ISDN, C7/SS7)
  • Explore how VoIP can run the same applications as the existing telephony system but in a more cost-efficient and scalable manner
  • Delve into such VoIP topics as jitter, latency, packet loss, codecs, QoS tools, and security
  • Voice over IP (VoIP) has become an important factor in network communications, promising lower operational costs, greater flexibility, and a variety of enhanced applications. To help you understand VoIP networks, Voice over IP Fundamentals provides a thorough introduction to the basics of VoIP.

    Voice over IP Fundamentals explains how a basic IP telephony infrastructure is built and works today, major concepts concerning voice and data networking, and transmission of voice over data networks. You’ll learn how voice is signaled through legacy telephone networks, how IP signaling protocols are used to interoperate with current telephony systems, and how to ensure good voice quality using quality of service (QoS).

    Even though Voice over IP Fundamentals is written for anyone seeking to understand how to use IP to transport voice, its target audience comprises both voice and data networking professionals. In the past, professionals working in voice and data networking did not have to understand each other’s roles. However, in this world of time-division multiplexing (TDM) and IP convergence, it is important to understand how these technologies work together. Voice over IP Fundamentals explains all the details so that voice experts can understand data networking and data experts can understand voice networking.

    The second edition of this best-selling book includes new chapters on the importance of billing and mediation in a VoIP network, security, and the common types of threats inherent when packet voice environments, public switched telephone networks (PSTN), and VoIP interoperate. It also explains enterprise and service-provider applications and services.

    Product Details

    ISBN-13: 9781587052576
    Publisher: Cisco Press
    Publication date: 08/10/2006
    Series: Fundamentals Series
    Edition description: REV
    Pages: 432
    Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)

    Table of Contents


    Part I PSTN

    Chapter 1 Overview of the PSTN and Comparisons to Voice over IP

    The Beginning of the PSTN

    Understanding PSTN Basics

    Analog and Digital Signaling

    Digital Voice Signals

    Local Loops, Trunks, and Interswitch Communication

    PSTN Signaling

    PSTN Services and Applications

    PSTN Numbering Plans

    Drivers Behind the Convergence Between Voice and Data Networking

    Drawbacks to the PSTN

    Packet Telephony Network Drivers

    Standards-Based Packet Infrastructure Layer

    Open Call-Control Layer

    VoIP Call-Control Protocols

    Open Service Application Layer

    New PSTN Network Infrastructure Model


    Chapter 2 Enterprise Telephony Today

    Similarities Between PSTN and ET

    Differences Between PSTN and ET

    Signaling Treatment

    Advanced Features

    Common ET and PSTN Interworking

    ET Networks Provided by PSTN

    Private ET Networks


    Chapter 3 Basic Telephony Signaling

    Signaling Overview

    Analog and Digital Signaling

    Direct Current Signalin8

    In-Band and Out-of-Band Signaling

    Loop-Start and Ground-Start Signaling

    CAS and CCS

    E&M Signaling

    Type I

    Type II

    Type III

    Type IV

    Type V


    Bell System MF Signaling

    CCITT No. 5 Signaling




    ISDN Service5

    ISDN Access Interface6

    ISDN L2 and L3 Protocols

    Basic ISDN Call


    QSIG Service4

    QSIG Architecture and Reference Points

    QSIG Protocol Stac5

    QSIG Basic Call Setup and Teardown Example



    Chapter 4 Signaling System 7

    SS7 Network Architecture

    Signaling Elements

    Signaling Links

    SS7 Protocol Overview

    Physical Layer—MTP L1

    Data Layer—MTP L2

    Network Layer—MTP3





    SS7 Examples

    Basic Call Setup and Teardown Example

    800 Database Query Example

    List of SS7 Specifications


    Chapter 5 PSTN Services

    Plain Old Telephone Service

    Custom Calling Features

    CLASS Features

    Voice Mail

    Business Services

    Virtual Private Voice Networks

    Centrex Services

    Call Center Services

    Service Provider Services

    Database Service

    Operator Services


    Part II Voice over IP Technology

    Chapter 6 IP Tutorial

    OSI Reference Model

    The Application Layer

    The Presentation Layer

    The Session Layer

    The Transport Layer

    The Network Layer

    The Data Link Layer

    The Physical Layer

    Internet Protocol

    Data Link Layer Addresses

    IP Addressing

    Routing Protocols

    Distance-Vector Routing

    Link-State Routing







    IP Transport Mechanisms





    Chapter 7 VoIP: An In-Depth Analysis


    Propagation Delay

    Handling Delay

    Queuing Delay


    Pulse Code Modulation

    What Is PCM?

    A Sampling Example for Satellite Networks

    Voice Compression

    Voice Coding Standards

    Mean Opinion Score

    Perceptual Speech Quality Measurement


    Packet Loss

    Voice Activity Detection

    Digital-to-Analog Conversion

    Tandem Encoding

    Transport Protocols


    Reliable User Data Protocol

    Dial-Plan Design

    End Office Switch Call-Flow Versus IP Phone Call



    Chapter 8 Quality of Service

    QoS Network Toolkit

    Edge Functions

    Bandwidth Limitations



    Packet Classification

    Traffic Policing

    Traffic Shaping

    Edge QoS Wrap-Up

    Backbone Networks

    High-Speed Transport

    Congestion Avoidance

    Backbone QoS Wrap-Up

    Rules of Thumb for QoS

    Cisco Labs’ QoS Testing


    Chapter 9 Billing and Mediation Services

    Billing Basics

    Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)


    Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSA)

    Billing Formats

    Case Study: Cisco SIP Proxy Server and Billing

    RADIUS Server Accounting

    Challenges for VoIP Networks

    Mediation Services


    Chapter 10 Voice Security

    Security Requirements

    Security Technologies

    Shared-Key Approaches

    Public-Key Cryptography

    Protecting Voice Devices

    Disabling Unused Ports/Services


    Protecting IP Network Infrastructure


    Traffic Policing

    802.1x Device Authentication

    Layer 2 Tools


    Layer 3 Tools

    Security Planning and Policies

    Transitive Trust

    VoIP Protocol-Specific Issues

    Complexity Tradeoffs

    NAT/Firewall Traversal

    Password and Access Control


    Part III IP Signaling Protocols

    Chapter 11 H.323

    H.323 Elements




    The MCU and Elements

    H.323 Proxy Server

    H.323 Protocol Suite

    RAS Signaling

    Call Control Signaling (H.225)

    Media Control and Transport (H.245 and RTP/RTCP)

    H.323 Call-Flows


    Chapter 12 SIP

    SIP Overview

    Functionality That SIP Provides

    SIP Network Elements

    Interaction with Other IETF Protocols

    Message Flow in SIP Network

    SIP Message Building Blocks

    SIP Addressing

    SIP Messages

    SIP Transactions and Dialog

    Transport Layer Protocols for SIP Signaling

    Basic Operation of SIP

    Proxy Server Example

    Redirect Server Example

    B2BUA Server Example

    SIP Procedures for Registration and Routing

    User Agent Discovering SIP Servers in a Network

    SIP Registration and User Mobility

    SIP Message Routing

    Routing of Subsequent Requests Within a SIP Dialog

    Signaling Forking at the Proxy

    Enhanced Proxy Routing

    SIP Extensions

    SIP Extension Negotiation Mechanism: Require, Supported, Allow Headers

    Caller and Callee Preferences

    SIP Event Notification Framework: Subscription and Notifications

    SUBSCRIBE and NOTIFY Methods

    Monitoring Registration State Using the Subscription-Notification Framework

    SIP REFER Request

    Presence and Instant Messaging Overview

    SIP Extensions for IM and Presence


    Chapter 13 Gateway Control Protocols

    MGCP Overview

    MGCP Model




    MGCP Commands and Messages

    CreateConnection (CRCX)

    ModifyConnection (MDCX)

    DeleteConnection (DLCX)

    NotificationRequest (RQNT)

    Notification (NTFY)

    AuditEndpoint (AUEP)

    AuditConnection (AUCX)

    RestartIn-Progress (RSIP)

    EndpointConfiguration (EPCF)

    MGCP Response Messages

    MGCP Call Flows

    Basic MGCP Call Flow

    Trunking GW-to-Trunking GW Call Flow

    Advanced MGCP Features

    Events and Event Packages

    Digit Maps

    Embedded Notification Requests

    Non-IP Bearer Networks



    Part IV VoIP Applications and Services

    Chapter 14 PSTN and VoIP Interworking

    Cisco Packet Telephony

    Packet Voice Network Overview

    Network Elements

    Residential Gateway

    Network Interfaces

    PGW2200 Architecture and Operations

    PGW2200-Supported Protocols

    Execution Environment

    North American Numbering Plan

    PGW2200 Implementation

    Application Check-Pointing

    MGC Node Manager


    PSTN Signaling Over IP



    Changing Landscape of PSTN-IP Interworking

    Session Border Controller (SBC)


    Chapter 15 Service Provider VoIP Applications and Services

    The Service Provider Dilemma

    Service Provider Applications and Benefits

    Service Provider VoIP Deployment: Vonage

    VoIP Operational Advantages

    Service Provider Case Study: Prepaid Calling Card

    BOWIE.net Multiservice Networks

    Session Border Control: Value Addition

    VoIP Peering: Top Priority for the Service Providers

    Service Provider VoIP and Consumer Fixed Mobile Convergence


    Chapter 16 Enterprise Voice over IP Applications and Services

    Migrating to VoIP Architecture

    Enterprise Voice Applications and Benefits

    Advanced Enterprise Applications

    Web-Based Collaboration and Conference

    The Need for Presence Information

    Presence-Aware Services

    Wi-Fi–Enabled Phones

    Better Voice Quality Using Wideband Codecs


    1587052571 TOC 7/6/2006

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