During the past few decades we have witnessed an era of remarkable growth in the field of molecular biology. In 1950 very little was known of the chemical constitution of biological systems, the manner in which information was trans mitted from one organism to another, or the extent to which the chemical basis of life is unified. The picture today is dramatically different. We have an almost bewildering variety of information detailing many different aspects of life at the molecular level. There great advances have brought with them some breath-taking insights into the molecular mechanisms used by nature for rep licating, distributing and modifying biological information. We have learned a great deal about the chemical and physical nature of the macromolecular nucleic acids and proteins, and the manner in which carbohydrates, lipids and smaller molecules work together to provide the molecular setting of living sys tems. It might be said that these few decades have replaced a near vacuum of information with a very large surplus. It is in the context of this flood of information that this series of monographs on molecular biology has been organized. The idea is to bring together in one place, between the covers of one book, a concise assessment of the state of the subject in a well-defined field. This will enable the reader to get a sense of historical perspectiv(}-what is known about the field today-and a description of the frontiers of research where our knowledge is increasing steadily.
Table of Contents1. Genetic Control of Cell Proliferation.- Genes Involved in Cell Division.- Gene Products Involved in Cell Division.- Temporal Organization of Cell Cycle Events.- The Start Concept.- Conditions Necessary to Start the Cell Cycle.- Mating Hormones and Start.- The Spindle Pole Body and Start.- Developmental Alternative to Mitosis.- Saccharomyces cerevisiae V. Schizosaccharomyces pombe.- References.- 2. Genetic Control and Gene Expression During Meiosis and Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.- Outline of Sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.- Special Genetic Techniques.- Gene Function and Gene Expression During Sporulation.- References.- 3. Meiotic Gene Conversion in Yeast: Molecular and Experimental Perspectives.- A Mechanistic Overview.- The Study of Gene Conversion.- Methods for Studying Gene Conversion.- Gene Conversion and Unselected Tetrads.- Mismatch Repair and Postmeiotic Segregation (pms).- Fidelity of Conversion.- Conversion of Deletions and Insertions.- Specific Molecular Mismatches in Conversion and pms.- The Effect of Adjacent Heterozygosity on pms Profiles.- Conversion-Associated Outside Marker Exchange.- Position of the Associated Exchange.- Conversion of Adjacent Genes.- Two-, Three-, and Four-Point Intragenic Crosses.- Intrachromosomal Gene Conversion and Recombinant DNA Strategies.- Conversion of Insertions and Intrachromosomal Gene Conversion.- References.- 4. Radiation-Sensitive Mutants and Repair in Yeast.- Radiation Biology of Yeast.- Radiation-Sensitive Mutants.- Double-Mutant Interactions and Epistasis Groups.- Phenotypic Characteristics of Repair-Defective Mutants.- Biochemical Studies on UV-Induced Damage and Repair.- X-ray-Sensitive Mutants.- The Role of RAD Genes in Meiosis.- References.- 5. Nucleic Acid Relatedness Among Yeasts.- Nucleic Acid Isolation and Purification.- DNA Base Composition.- DNA Relatedness.- Comparison of Relatedness from Nucleic Acid Studies with That Determined by Other Methodologies.- Molecular Taxonomy as an Aid to Genetic Research.- References.- 6. Genetic Approaches to the Study of Protease Function and Proteolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.- Intracellular Proteases and Protease Inhibitors of S.cerevisiae.- Genetics of Known Proteases and Protease Inhibitors.- Proteolytic Processes and the Role of Known Proteases in These Processes.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 7. Genetic Control of Flocculation.- Methodology.- Origin of Strains.- Genetic Analysis.- Phenotypic Variations.- Cell Wall Differences.- Stability of Flocculence.- Industrial Applications.- References.- 8. Protein and Lipid Composition of the Yeast Plasma Membrane.- Cytological Purity of Membrane Preparations.- A Vesicle Free Cell Wall Preparation.- Surface Labeling of Intact Yeast Cells.- One-Dimensional SDS-PAGE Surface Label Experiments.- Two-Dimensional SDS-PAGE.- Cell Wall Polypeptides.- Comparative Lipid Analyses.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 9. Protoplast Fusion in Yeasts.- Protoplast Isolation, Fusion, and Reversion.- The Consequences of Protoplast Fusion.- Discussion.- References.- 10. Genetic and Functional Aspects of Yeast Mitochondria.- Introduction: The Petite Mutant.- Recombination in Mitochondria.- Antimitochondrial Activity of Drugs.- Mitochondria and Cellular Processes.- Conclusions.- References.- 11. Molecular Genetic Aspects of Yeast Mitochondria.- General Introduction.- Mitochondrial DNA.- The Diversity of Mitochondrial DNAs.- Yeast Mitochondrial DNA.- Mitochondrial Transcription.- Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis.- The Petite Mutation and mtDNA Replication.- Genetic Interactions Between Nucleus and Mitochondrion.- Evolutionary Aspects.- Conclusions and Prospects.- References.- Note Added in Proof.- 12. ScV “Killer” Viruses in Yeast.- Viral Particles.- Viral Genomes.- Viral Maintenance.- Other Cytoplasmic Elements.- Conclusions.- References.- 13. Approaches to the Genetic Analysis and Breeding of Brewer’s Yeast.- Genetic Characterization of Brewing Strains.- Breeding of Brewing Strains.- References.- 14. Genetic Improvement of Wine Yeast.- Origin and Classification of Wine Yeasts.- Life Cycle and Ploidy Level.- Wine Yeast Improvement.- Genetics and Examples of Strain Improvement.- Strain Maintenance.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 15. Aspects of the Biochemistry and Genetics of Sugar and Carbohydrate Uptake by Yeasts.- D-Galactose.- Maltose and Maltotriose.- Pentoses.- Extracellular Enzymes.- Sucrose.- Melibiose.- Dextrin and Starch.- Mitochondrial Control of Sugar Utilization.- References.- Author Index.- Species Index.