People, Sheep and Nature Conservation: The Tasmanian Experience

People, Sheep and Nature Conservation: The Tasmanian Experience

by Jamie Kirkpatrick, Kerry Bridle

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780643099418
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
Publication date: 05/26/2007
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 264
File size: 7 MB

Table of Contents

Preface J. B. Kirkpatrick K. L. Bridle ix

Chapter 1 History J. B. Kirkpatrick 1

Summary 1

Introduction 1

The grazing lands in gathering and hunting times 2

The first sheep and their people 3

Sheep and the Black War 9

Early environmental impacts of sheep 10

Two-legged dogs 11

Yeomen graziers 11

Firing the landscape 15

Rabbits, scab and other pestilences 21

Breeding for environment, purpose and fashion 27

Transhumance 32

Technology 36

Markets 39

Climate 41

Conclusions 42

Chapter 2 Managing the run country for production J. B. Kirkpatrick K. L. Bridle P. Leith 45

Summary 45

Introduction 45

Runs, native pasture and bush 50

Sources of information 51

The microeconomics of run country 51

Economic uses of run country 53

Managing the run country for profit 55

The enterprise classification 55

Grazing regimes 56

Introduction 56

Influence of environment on pasture management 59

Set stocking 60

Rotational systems 61

Cell grazing 64

Mixed systems 68

Spelling 68

Type of stock 69

Stocking rates 70

Fire management 71

Increasing productivity through inputs 75

Disease management 80

Wild animal management 83

Weed management 90

Conclusions 97

Notes 97

Chapter 3 Conserving on the run Country J. B. Kirkpatrick K. L. Bridle J. Edwards J. Vercoe 99

Summary 99

Introduction 99

Maintaining soils 101

Maintaining water quality and quantity 105

Conserving nature 109

Nature conservation values of the graziers 109

Observations on trees 112

Observations on other native plant species 115

Observations on animals 115

Nature conservation management 118

Conclusions 123

Chapter 4 Trees on the run J. B. Kirkpatrick D.Wilson A. Meiss A. Mollon K. L. Bridle 125

Summary 125

Introduction 125

Causes of change in tree density 125

Tree thickening and dieback 127

Compositional change in the thickening process 132

Putting trees back 134

Notes 136

Chapter 5 Sheep and nature on the run country J. B. Kirkpatrick 139

Summary 139

Introduction 139

Sheep and plant species 140

Fire, air, water, earth and teeth 151

Effects of grazing regimes on plants 155

Sheep and invertebrates 156

Sheep and native vertebrates 158

Conclusions 159

Chapter 6 Run country on the run J. B. Kirkpatrick L. Gilfedder L. Mendel E. Jenkin 161

Summary 161

Introduction 161

Clearing 164

Natives invade previously improved land 168

Changes in native vegetation remnants 1993-1999 169

Introduction 169

Changes in ownership and management 170

Change in management relative to remnant characteristics 171

Changes in vegetation characteristics 172

Do size and age matter? Edge effects in remnants 173

Introduction 173

Vegetation differences between edges and centres 173

Soil differences between edges and centres 174

Effect of remnant age on differences between edges and centres 175

Effects of geometry on within-remnant variation 175

Effect of matrix on differences between edges and centres 176

Effects of management on differences between edges and centres 177

Effects of environment on differences between edges and centres 177

Remnant characteristics and management of biota 177

Importance of threatened species in remnant management 178

Notes 179

Chapter 7 The future of the run country J. B. Kirkpatrick A. Jensen K. L. Bridle 183

Summary 183

Introduction 183

Bureaucrats and graziers 185

A nature conservation system 191

Opportunity cost of nature conservation 196

Using nature in marketing 201

A felicitous convergence? 205

Notes 205

Chapter 8 Some overall conclusions J. B. Kirkpatrick K. L. Bridle 209

Summary 209

Conclusions 209

Appendixes 211

Glossary 219

References 222

Index 240

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