In One Soufflé at a Time, Willan tells her story and the story of the food-world greats-including Julia Child, James Beard, Simone Beck, Craig Claiborne, Richard Olney, and others-who changed how the world eats and who made cooking fun. She writes about how a sturdy English girl from Yorkshire made it not only to the stove, but to France, and how she overcame the exceptionally closed male world of French cuisine to found and run her school. Willan's story is warm and rich, funny and fragrant with the smells of the country cooking of France. It's also full of the creative culinary ferment of the 1970s-a decade when herbs came back to life and freshness took over, when the seeds of our modern day obsession with food and ingredients were sown.
Tens of thousands of students have learned from Willan, not just at La Varenne, but through her large, ambitious Look & Cook book series and twenty-six-part PBS program. Now One Soufflé at a Time which features fifty of her favorite recipes, from Coquille St. Jacques to Chocolate Snowballbrings Willan's own story of her life to the center of the banquet table.
Related collections and offers
|Publisher:||St. Martin's Publishing Group|
|Product dimensions:||5.40(w) x 8.20(h) x 0.90(d)|
About the Author
AMY FRIEDMAN is the author of Desperado's Wife: A Memoir. She writes the internationally syndicated "Tell Me a Story" column for Universal Press Syndicate.
Read an Excerpt
UPSTAIRS IN PARIS
If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.
—Harry S. Truman
On a chilly November morning I rushed out of our apartment overlooking the Eiffel Tower. Just a few months earlier, in the summer of 1975, my husband, Mark, and I, with our two small children, Simon and Emma, had moved to Paris. I’d already taken this twenty-minute walk dozens of times, a straight path east along the Rue Saint Dominique, on my way to my cookery school that was, after years of planning, nearly ready to open. This was the day Craig Claiborne, the renowned restaurant critic of The New York Times and the most important fixture on the American food scene, was coming to see the school. That he was coming at all was a great compliment, but a mention in The Times could make all the difference, since his words could make or break our reputation.
I hurried past top-class food stores—a poulterer and several bakeries. I had already picked out “my” café, the place I stopped every morning to drink a café crème and read the Herald Tribune; from the first day the server knew my order without asking. But that day I didn’t stop. I swept past commanding historic buildings and across the gray gravel then fronting Les Invalides, the vast complex of military-themed museums and Napoléon’s tomb. I spotted our sign painted in crisp black letters on a cream background: LA VARENNE ÉCOLE DE CUISINE and felt a shiver of pride at the sight of it and of our window boxes with their cheerful geraniums.
Keeper of the keys, I climbed the back stairs and turned the ancient, crabby lock, releasing the heavy sidewalk door, which surely dated from the 1930s. Our French business partner and landlord, Sofitel, had helped us find this old bistro beside one of their hotels in the heart of Paris. Finding the right place had not been easy. Restaurants in Paris were doing very well, and French law demanded that any premises in which there would be cooking had to have a restaurant license. But this 150-year-old building with its stone-vaulted cellar naturally insulated for a chambre froide, a walk-in cold room with meat hooks, was just right. By that day in November we had spent months remodeling—one classroom on the ground floor for the morning hands-on practical classes, with another upstairs to double as a practical kitchen and a space for afternoon demonstrations that would, like the cinema, welcome drop-ins. Now I hoped to lure some students.
Our chef, Michel Marolleau, arrived at nine on the dot. Marolleau had been recommended by Sofitel and was the image of what I’d imagined as the La Varenne chef with his good looks, neatly combed hair, and pencil-perfect moustache. He was young—just twenty-nine to my thirty-seven. Although he had not one word of English, he did have solid cooking experience. That morning as he changed into his starched chef’s whites in the cubbyhole behind the upstairs office, I busied myself with last-minute preparations. I noticed the loose telephone wires still about but consoled myself that at least the main demonstration bench and crucial overhead mirror lined with Mylar reflecting plastic were installed. I smiled up at that mirror, envisioning a showman chef who might flambé with too much enthusiasm and scorch a hole in the Mylar—and later did just that.
All that summer and into fall had been a flurry of activity, but I was fortunate to have the support not only of the family but also of so many lights of the food world. Simone Beck—better known as Simca and Julia Child’s co-author—had gone with me to the frenetic Salon des Arts Ménagers, where I purchased equipment for the school. Simca’s energy was astounding; in her toy-sized car, also called a Simca, she drove me around the Place de l’Étoile never looking left or right. Armed with her wisdom and keen eye, I decided on appliances that combined economy with toughness. We could not afford the robust German makes, let alone anything American, which was the wrong image anyway. My mission was to teach real French cooking, but so many of the French appliances were of poor quality, so we finally decided on the French-made Arthur Martin as a good compromise. At the school the utilitarian brown floor was shiny clean. The sight of the curtains I had made myself from the expensive chintz fabric printed with herbs, an opening gift from my mother, gave me a rush of pride. I’d wanted to add a touch of hominess to temper all that cold stainless steel of the bench and ovens.
I had spent many days preparing for this particular morning. At my request, Chef Marolleau had made his signature apple tart and chewy almond cookies called financiers because they are the color and shape of gold bars. I’d also instructed him to be prepared to serve lunch, though I couldn’t be certain Craig would stay. I fussed over every detail, lastly my clothes, the flared black wool skirt my mother had bought for me on Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré and my favorite red-patterned shirt. My mother had insisted I dress well for such an occasion—so much was at stake.
For nearly eighty years the Cordon Bleu had been the cooking school in France for professionals from other countries. But in the 1960s when I was a student at the school in Paris I’d been frustrated by the fact that while we learned a great deal, none of it was on paper. That was the way I had always been taught, especially at Cambridge University, where I had earned my degree in economics. At Cambridge one was always hearing: “If it’s interesting, write it down,” but at the Cordon Bleu nothing was, and there also was only one cantankerous old chef. Although he was good, he flatly refused to discuss anything. I always had questions—“Chef, why are you cooking this so fast?” or, “Chef, what exactly does it mean to sauté something?” or, “Chef, how do I know when something’s done?” Whenever anyone dared ask anything, the chef snarled, “Don’t bother me.”
So we learned by inference—we had to watch how the chef cooked. That’s what I did. And I took copious notes. Every night of my months there I went to my room and typed the recipes on three-by-five cards. When I began to prepare to open my own cooking school, some of these recipes became the inspiration of the curriculum. Behind all this was my belief that we must look at cooking the way the French look at it: Cooking has a structure, a particular way of doing things. For instance, roasting involves dry heat, moderately high but sometimes very high temperatures, so you know certain techniques are involved in the process. If you know that structure, you can roast anything. Everything has a structure—the basic sauces, the stocks, the crème pâtissière. And with technique, you build. Even a simple dish such as fillets of sole Provençale provided a good lesson in lifting the four skinny fillets from a whole fish, then sautéing them briskly, but not too fast, in butter, with a tablespoon of oil to discourage scorching. The tomatoes (fresh only) must be peeled and seeded, and the seasonal garlic of late spring is best.
FILLETS OF SOLE PROVENÇALE
Any whitefish fillets are good cooked this way and this is a last-minute dish, best served at once. Add a wedge of lemon to each plate.
4–8 fillets whitefish (1½ pounds/675 g total)
2 medium tomatoes
4–5 tablespoons/30–40 g flour
Salt and pepper
4 tablespoons/60 g butter, plus more if needed
1 tablespoon/15 ml vegetable oil, plus more if needed
2 shallots, finely chopped
2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
Rinse and dry the fish fillets on paper towels and cut large fillets in half, lengthwise. Core the tomatoes and cut them in half crosswise. To remove the seeds, squeeze the halves in your fist so the seeds pop out; then coarsely chop the tomato flesh.
Spread the flour on a sheet of paper towel and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Press each side of a fish fillet on the flour; lift and pat it with your hands to form an even coating. Coat the remaining fillets. Heat half the butter with the oil in a large frying pan over medium-high heat. When the butter stops sputtering, add half the fish fillets, skin side upward. Sauté briskly until browned, 2 to 3 minutes, turn, and brown the other side. Transfer the fillets to two warm serving plates and keep warm. Add more butter and oil to the pan if needed, and sauté the remaining fillets to fill two more plates.
Wipe out the pan. Melt the remaining 2 tablespoons butter and sauté the shallots until translucent, 1 to 2 minutes. Stir in the garlic and cook until fragrant, 1 more minute. Stir in the tomato and cook briefly, stirring, until very warm, about another minute. Stir in the parsley, take from the heat, and spoon over the fish fillets. Serve at once.
With La Varenne, I wanted to bring the best cooking in the world—French cooking—to a wider audience. That had always meant I had to open the school in Paris, where I could find world-class chefs and where students would have an opportunity to dine and eventually work in the finest restaurants. It was my mission to make it easy for the students to learn. The school would be bilingual, which at that time the Cordon Bleu in Paris most emphatically was not. Despite the fact that I understood the chefs rarely followed written recipes, students would receive paper copies. Eventually, to deal with grumbling from students discovering an incongruity between the written recipe and what the chef was actually doing, we added a caveat: “Since each chef may prepare his own version of this recipe, please consider the above as a starting point for your own notes.”
I wanted to make everyone feel at home. Because I was born English, I knew what it felt like to be a stranger in France. I wanted our school to allow for national tastes and to incorporate ingredients from afar. For years I lugged American flour from the United States to Paris in my red valise so that anyone returning to the United States could succeed at making butter puff pastry the French way at home. I insisted on putting hand to dough—la main à la pâte, as the French would say. I understood that good food is food without pretension, food that delights by surprise, food that appeals to every sense. That was the understanding I hoped to instill in our students. Details mattered. My Grand Diplôme from the Paris Cordon Bleu, dated March 27, 1964, misspelled my name—Anne Willian—although we had fewer than twenty students in our class and I had been there for eighteen months. Not only did that feel insulting, but it was the kind of indifference to students I was determined not to allow at La Varenne.
For two years before we opened, our family had lived in Luxembourg, where my husband worked at the European Investment Bank. It was in Luxembourg that the idea for the school began to take real shape. From a gastronomic viewpoint, the two years in Luxembourg were a dead end— “mountain trout” came from the hatchery; game seemed to have fled over the border into the French and Belgian Ardennes. Luckily, France was not far away and Mark, my éminence grise in so many things, kept reassuring me we would move back to Paris and I would open a school.
But other than Mark and my friends Julia Child and Simca Beck, few people understood my idea. Whenever Mark and I talked about the idea with English friends, they were nonplussed. How could anybody, particularly a foreigner, open a cookery school in Paris? They wanted to know. They thought we were mad even to imagine the idea. American friends outside the food world found the idea entrepreneurial, an inverted form of the American dream. But they asked things like, “Do you speak French?” or, “Will the Paris chefs help you?” They actually had no idea.
Indeed, as I was quickly coming to understand, neither did I. The previous months had been an orgy of preparation. We had been busy moving the family and finding a nanny and schools for the children, who were three and five, and also working hard to raise sufficient funds for the school. Our early investors included many in the food world who had been so welcoming—Julia and Paul Child, James Beard, Simca Beck, as well as our good friend Nick Brown. But I quickly discovered it is a quantum leap from cooking professionally and writing about food—both of which I had been doing for more than a decade—to organizing and running a school. Julia was great from the start, offering not just financial help but also ideas and friends and friends of friends—people who made yearly pilgrimages to the three-star restaurants; people who played tennis with the Troisgros brothers, famed restaurateurs; people who fermented their own crème frâiche for Lutèce; cookbook authors and editors who led to yet more friends.
Julia and Simca had arranged for me to teach six weeks of classes at the fabled Gritti Palace hotel in Venice in the early summer of 1975. There I would be introduced to a wider audience. Julia also introduced us to her lawyer, William Peter Kosmas, whom we liked immediately. It was Bill who worked out a partnership contract with Sofitel and he who had found us a woman to help with promotion. “Yanou Collart,” he told us, “represents Paul Bocuse.” Bocuse, whose restaurant l’Auberge du Pont de Collonges near Lyon was one of a small number in France to receive the Guide Michelin three-star rating, was one of the most prominent chefs in the world. So although we had no experience with publicists, naturally we contacted Yanou.
Yanou was big and matronly. Though I couldn’t be sure, she was apparently a lesbian who was open about her sexuality at a time when that was rare. And her advice was priceless. “What you have to do,” she told me, “is hold classes and invite anybody and everybody. Then we’ll get journalists to come and write about the classes.…” I didn’t think for one moment of ignoring her advice. I knew good press would be vital. Still, in late September, six weeks before opening, we had just one registered student. I was apprehensive.
Before Luxembourg, we had lived in Washington, D.C., where I worked as food editor at The Washington Star, and I had learned there that fake photo setups look artificial. So instead of making a pretense, I rounded up just a few friends to provide animation for our demonstration. I carefully prepared the menu—Marolleau seemed willing to turn his hand to anything. On our dry run one week earlier for a freelance journalist, everything had gone beautifully. I felt confident all would go well that day, too. Besides, I hoped Craig wouldn’t have bothered to agree to come unless he had positive feelings about the school.
* * *
Small, slightly plump, and cherubic-faced, Craig arrived promptly on time, but when he walked in he tripped slightly over those telephone wires. Thankfully, he didn’t take a spill. He had less than an hour, he explained as we hurried up the stairs for a look around. He was on a tight schedule. For a moment I was disappointed, but I understood that a visit to an infant cooking school could not be a high priority for the most famous cookery journalist in America. Looking back, I understand still better: That very week he and his longtime friend Chef Pierre Franey embarked on an adventure at the prominent Paris restaurant Chez Denis, a meal that became an unfortunate cause célèbre, a $4,000 tab on a thirty-one-course meal. Readers lambasted him for the extravagance in a time when so many in the world were dying of hunger.
Still, I was honored to have him at La Varenne, and as I showed him around I handed him copies of many of the nearly one thousand recipes I’d spent the last several years writing, and more information about the school Yanou insisted I give him. I led him in to observe Marolleau’s demonstration, which I translated, opening by articulating my idea behind La Varenne. “We intend to instruct in every facet of French cooking—sauces, roasts, fish cookery, pastry and dessert making, soups, hors d’oeuvre…”
The rest of that hour is a blur.
By the time Craig left it was scarcely lunchtime, yet I felt as if a whole day had passed. Exhausted, Marolleau and I sat down and ate his gigot d’agneau de sept heures and nibbled on the financiers. I’d deliberately chosen the slowly braised lamb to be reheatable. Thank heaven no French meal is complete without a glass, or two, of wine.
SEVEN-HOUR LEG OF LAMB
This recipe was once intended for tough mutton, but today’s tender meat takes only 4 to 5 hours to cook. A few small boiled potatoes are the only accompaniment needed.
Serves 6 to 8
A leg of mature lamb (about 6 pounds/2.7 kg)
2 cloves garlic, cut in slivers
A large bouquet garni of parsley stems, 3 bay leaves, and several stems of thyme
Salt and pepper
4 quarts/4 liters water, plus more if needed
3 small turnips
3 medium leeks
2 small celery roots
3 medium onions
10–12 cloves garlic, chopped
Cheesecloth; string; large casserole or heavy roasting pan
Heat the oven to 275°F/140°C and set a shelf low down. Trim the lamb of excess fat and stud the meat with the slivers of garlic, poking small holes with the point of a knife. Wrap the meat in cheesecloth and tie it tightly with string (it will shrink during cooking). Put it in the casserole with the bouquet garni, a pinch of salt, and enough water to cover it by three-quarters. Bring the water slowly to a boil on top of the stove and skim it well.
Cover the casserole, transfer it to the oven, and cook for 2 hours. The water should scarcely simmer, so if necessary turn down the heat. Turn over the meat after 2 hours and continue cooking another hour. Meanwhile, trim, peel, and cut the carrots, turnips, leeks, celery roots, and onions into 3/8-inch/1-cm slices. Mix them with the chopped garlic, salt, and pepper.
After 3 hours, lift out the meat, add the vegetables in the casserole, and replace the meat on top. If necessary, add more water so that the meat is half-covered. Replace the lid and continue cooking until the meat is very tender indeed and would fall off the bone if not wrapped, 1 to 1½ more hours.
Remove the meat to a warm place and cover it loosely with foil. If the vegetables are not very tender, continue simmering them, uncovered, on top of the stove until they almost collapse into a fragrant mélange. Transfer them with a slotted spoon to a deep platter, discarding the bouquet garni. Cover and keep warm. Increase the heat so the cooking liquid boils and reduces.
Discard the cheesecloth and strings from the lamb, lift it carefully onto the vegetables, cover, and keep the platter warm. Continue reducing the cooking liquid to about 3 cups/750 ml of concentrated broth to serve as gravy—this may take up to 20 minutes. Taste it and adjust the seasoning. Serve the vegetables and meat in shallow bowls—the meat will fall apart without being carved. Spoon over a little of the broth, passing the rest separately in a bowl.
On November 5, 1975, just five days before our official opening, Craig’s glowing piece about La Varenne appeared in The New York Times. Although he mentioned those trailing wires, he also remarked on the “far from unpleasant mingling of odors—roast meat with the good smell of game, celery, apples and fresh paint.” He wrote about the brightly lighted room, the spotless modern range, and our young chef applying himself to “multiple good things including … a caramelized tarte Tatin.” He quoted my mission, and at the end came a paragraph about our opening on Monday, November 10. We were off.
Our earliest days of press coverage assured me I was on to something. Even France’s Le Figaro described what we were doing as an alliance “of American bonhomie and the French art of the table.” I remained confident that we were offering something different from, and better than, the Cordon Bleu of those days. It is true that a soufflé that would rise in the Paris Cordon Bleu basement kitchen in their ovens with no thermostat would rise anywhere. But I wanted something much better, and I believed we had set the stage.
We had problems early on—primarily staff, or rather the lack of it. I was on the front line, not only translating demonstrations and classes but also welcoming walk-in visitors and cleaning up after class. Marolleau reported full-time, as was required by French law, but also under French labor law, chefs do not wash up. We paid him handsomely, though most of the time he was lolling around, because into December we had only a trickle of students. He spent mornings in the basement organizing his mise en place for the afternoon class in case a few students did show up. Every day at 2:30 I would walk downstairs to the front door and peek outside to see if anyone happened to be waiting on the sidewalk for the drop-in class. Many days there was no one there.
Just the week before Christmas our first full paid student came, Abby Mandel from Chicago. Several months earlier at a cooking demonstration for a benefit in Illinois that Julia gave, she had talked up the school. So Abby, who had persuaded Julia to do the demonstration, decided to come. Abby eventually brought the first sustainable farmer’s market to Chicago and was one of the first of many La Varenne students to go on to stellar careers in food. But in those early days besides Abby we had only the dentist’s wife, everybody and anybody’s secretary or cousin, whomever we could persuade to come.
In mid-December Yanou arranged for a journalist, Susan Heller Anderson, to visit. Susan came to one class, then to a second, and when she asked if she could come a third time I thought, Well, honestly…, because those classes were costing us money. But I held my tongue. This time she asked if she could bring along a photographer. Looking back, I suppose I should have known that was a sign things were going places, but I was too busy to notice.
On the day Susan came with the photographer, he happened to catch a freak photo. Michel was making chaud-froid de poulet, and I was animatedly translating, pointing at the dish. The photographer happened to catch a picture of us at the moment that Marolleau, in his chef’s hat, was making precisely the same gesture as I was. At the end of the day, Susan said, “I think I’ve sold a story about the school to Time magazine.”
That night I told Mark, and we agreed it would likely be one of those two-sentence paragraphs. We thought nothing more about it as we closed up the school for the holidays. Christmas is always an important gathering time for our family, and there was no question that we would close. We celebrated during the lull until the New Year. Then, at the start of 1976, the new Time came in the mail, and when we opened it we were speechless. There was an enthusiastic story with a two-column-wide photograph occupying half a page.
What sets La Varenne apart from any other school of la cuisine classique in France is that it is run—efficiently—by an Englishwoman, Anne Willan—and it is the first full-scale school to offer lessons in English as well as French. Without mincing any mots, the well-financed academy has set out to challenge the haughty Cordon Bleu, the 80-year-old citadel of French culinary tradition that has become a synonym for distinguished cookery. [“Modern Living: A Franglais Challenge to Cordon Bleu,” Time, January 5, 1976.]
Susan described me as an unflappable practical cook with the Grand Diplôme from the Paris Cordon Bleu and other credentials—like the twenty-volume Grand Diplôme Cooking Course I had edited back in the early seventies in America. And, she wrote, “she has a well-traveled palate.” I loved that description. In the second week of January when we reopened, the phone lines began to ring off the hook. From having no students, by the third week of January we had one full class of ten and another half-filled. Suddenly I was translating two practical classes and five demonstrations each week and Marolleau was on his feet all day. I understood we had created a living, breathing animal.
* * *
So much of cooking is indefinable, a question of instinct. In France, unlike America and England in those days, children were brought up thinking about what they eat. From a very early age they were aware of the importance of how something should taste. Questions followed: “Does this have enough salt?” “Wouldn’t this be nice with tarragon?” “This sauce has just the right balance of this and that…” From infancy, children in France hear people talking this way. I wanted our students to pick up the French custom of appraising what they ate, just the way I had learned from a family I lived with while I was at the Paris Cordon Bleu in the early 1960s.
The Charpentiers, with their seven children, followed a program of discipline that I’m certain went back generations. Each day Monsieur, a wealthy industrialist, came home for a two-hour lunch at which all the children were expected to behave impeccably. The food was plain—dried salami sausage, celery root rémoulade, radishes with butter, followed by roast meat and a single vegetable, fish on Fridays, then cheese and fruit. I was impressed by the way the whole family talked about food. The youngest child was born while I was living there, the oldest was twelve, and they grew up with an “I always cross Paris to get the best chickens on Sunday” attitude. Their chickens came from a special poulterer, the finest in Paris. The Charpentiers were upper bourgeoisie, but even in ordinary restaurants in France I saw parents and their children relishing food, tasting, say, steak frites, saying things like, “Oh, these frites are not as good as last week’s.”
Back then every self-respecting Frenchwoman had her special chocolate cake, though sometimes it did seem the only dish well-to-do Frenchwomen could cook. Most French families seemed to have hidden a plump little old lady in the kitchen, a fact that had prompted Julia to comment of the elegant mesdames out front in the salon, “Frenchwomen can’t cook!” But Marielle Charpentier was different. The Charpentier house was a paradise of good wine and food, and dessert was a festival of tastes—fritters with honey or snow eggs of meringue floating in vanilla custard and topped with crisp caramel. Marielle had a small repertoire, but each dish was perfection.
Her chocolate snowball has toured the world with me, greeted everywhere with acclaim. How can you miss with more or less equal weights of chocolate, butter, sugar, and eggs in a cloud of whipped cream?
For me, the darker the chocolate, the better this dessert will be.
8 ounces/225 g dark sweet chocolate, chopped
¾ cup/175 ml espresso coffee
1 cup/225 g unsalted butter, cut into pieces
1 cup/200 g sugar
For the Chantilly cream
1 cup/250 ml heavy cream, chilled
1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon/15 ml cognac or ½ teaspoon vanilla
Fresh mint sprigs or candied violets
1-quart/1-liter charlotte mold or deep metal bowl; pastry bag and small star tip; heavy-duty aluminum foil
Line the mold with a large sheet of aluminum foil, pressing it down into the base and up the sides as smoothly as possible without poking a hole. Preheat the oven to 350°F/180°C. Whisk the eggs in a bowl until mixed.
In a medium saucepan, melt the chocolate over low heat with the coffee, stirring until melted. Cook the mixture, stirring constantly, until it is thick but still falls easily from the spoon, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the butter and sugar, and keep stirring over the heat until both are melted. Bring the mixture almost to a boil and take from the heat. Stir in the eggs a little at a time: the retained heat will cook the eggs and thicken the mixture slightly.
Work the mixture through a strainer into the lined mold. Set the mold on a baking sheet and bake in the oven until a thick crust forms on top, 45 to 55 minutes. The mixture will rise slightly, then fall again as it cools. Cover and chill in the refrigerator at least 24 hours. The chocolate snowball can be kept up to a week and the flavor will mellow.
To finish: Not more than 2 hours before serving, run a knife around the mold, turn the snowball onto a serving plate, and peel off the foil. (The mixture tends to stick and look messy; do not worry.) For the Chantilly cream, whisk the chilled cream in a cold bowl until it holds soft peaks. Add the sugar and cognac or vanilla, and continue whisking until stiff peaks form, 30 seconds to 1 minute. Scoop the cream into the pastry bag with the star tip, and pipe small rosettes all over the chocolate mixture to cover it completely. Top the center of the mold with a single large rosette. Decorate with mint sprigs or candied violets, and chill until serving. Serve the snowball by cutting in wedges like a cake.
I hadn’t found such appreciation of food in England, and in America there was even less of a habit of analyzing the food on the plate. It’s different now, but in the sixties and seventies that approach didn’t exist. For the cook there are two parts to tasting. One is the intellectual side: what the natural combinations are—like nutmeg with milk and cream, or lemon with fish. Just the knowledge of that entering your consciousness forever is part of the underlying grasp of cooking. And there’s the actual physical side, where you should taste everything at every stage—testing the boiling water for salt even before you drop in the greens.
The most difficult skill to teach is how to taste. A cook must learn not only how to judge flavor but also to test it all the time, and even those who enjoy cooking and are good at it find that difficult. After tasting the water you need to taste the cooked spinach, then taste again when you reheat it with a bit of butter. As for those complex sauces? You taste the stock, then the sauce itself half a dozen times as it simmers and deepens over the hours. Tasting is part of a chef’s instinct, the part that’s difficult to ingrain in students and so hard to explain.
With thirty students and three full classes, straightaway I could tell who had the instinct. I could tell whether or not a student felt at ease in the kitchen, and it wasn’t necessarily a matter of experience. Those who felt at home did not need to be told to do things like pick up dirty pots and take them to wash up; without being taught they trimmed their onions just right before starting to slice or dice them. I began to understand it was like a sport—some people pick up that physical side quickly and some never do; some people have a good palate, and some do not.
Our son, Simon, was only five when La Varenne opened, but he already had a good food memory and could recognize the taste of his scoop of nameless white sorbet—apple, pear, lemon, or grapefruit. Later, in his teens, he would recognize flavors within a complex sauce that had eight different ingredients—“ah, that’s cumin,” he’d say, “not coriander.” And Marielle Charpentier had that kind of palate, able to compete with the sommelier at La Tour d’Argent with its world-renowned cellar. At La Varenne, I began to see that in a class of ten students eight would be in the middle; I knew half of those were likely to emerge as pretty good chefs. There was always, sadly, the one student who was prone to disaster—burning things or making sauces that tasted of raw flour. And the tenth, with luck, would be a real natural who had what it takes in the head and in the hands.
In the first few years of La Varenne’s existence, I was lucky enough to find just the right chefs, while thousands of cooking enthusiasts walked through our doors—restaurateurs, caterers, chefs, cooking teachers, food writers, and some complete amateurs. Just a small handful—perhaps a dozen a year—became stagiaires, interns who followed a program that eventually emerged as a nine-month work program covering over one thousand recipes.
But in those first months I wasn’t thinking of what our future would be. I was rushing about handling what I had created out of my imagination and learning again that great cooking is so much more than recipes. Memorable cooking is like great music, with balance and sureness of touch that goes straight to the heart. At École de Cuisine La Varenne we gathered brilliant teachers and eager students, who roamed through recipes on the page and in the kitchen, and I remained determined that everyone who came to us should feel touched by the magic of success. I wanted people to leave saying what one student early on remarked: “When I go home I will never look at food the same way again.”
Copyright © 2013 by Anne Willan Inc.
Table of Contents
1 Upstairs in Paris 1
Recipes: Fillets of Sole Provençale, Seven-Hour Leg of Lamb, Chocolate Snowball
2 Going My Own Way 16
Recipes: Ginger Biscuits, Treacle Tart, Aunt Louie's Cheese Balls, Aunt Louie's Yule Bread, Christmas Cake
3 A Merciful Blur 37
Recipes: Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding and Gravy, Rum Babas, My Mother's Braised Oxtail
4 It's Another Adventure 53
Recipes: Coronation Chicken Elizabeth, My Father's Pheasant Casserole
5 Duck's Blood and Aspic 72
Recipes: Blanquette of Veal with Morels, Ribboned Bavarian Cream
6 The Call to Prayer 93
Recipes: Pot Roast Chicken with Potatoes, Bacon, and Onions; Hazelnut and Strawberry Galette; Shrimp and Cheese Soufflés
7 Around the World 113
Recipes: Apricot and Pistachio Brittle, Stephen's Strawberry Brûlée, Moroccan Spiced Turkey
8 An Entertaining Life 134
Recipes: Backyard Paella, Roast Salmon with Summer Vegetables
9 Paradise Found 154
Recipes: Gougères, Gratin Dauphinois, Petits Financiers
10 Lunch with the Tax Inspector 173
Recipes: Chef Chambrette's Scallops with Saffron and Cream, Chocolate Soufflé, Chocolate Pear Tart
11 Moi, Artiste! 195
Recipes: Veal Pojarski, Cotriade Normande, Gâteau Breton
12 Seventh Heaven 212
Recipes: Gooseberry Torte, Red Wine Risotto
13 The Perks 224
Recipes: Smoked Salmon Rillettes, Marc Meneau's Apple Gâteau, Salt Butter Caramel Sauce, Red Wine Tart
14 La Vie de Château 239
Recipes: Summer Vegetable Piston, Randall's Biscotti, Tarte des Demoiselles Tatin
15 At Home in the Kitchen 259
Recipes: Hot Bacon and Egg Salad, Count Rocco's Minestrone, Herb Ice Cream
16 Boars' Heads, Bunkers, and Bubbly 273
Recipes: Duck Breast with Garlic and Walnut Relish, Cheese Brioche, Coeur à la Crème
Anne Willan's Previous Publications 293