Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture [NOOK Book]

Overview

Clouds are distributed technology platforms that leverage sophisticated technology innovations to provide highly scalable and resilient environments that can be remotely utilized by organizations in a multitude of powerful ways. To successfully build upon, integrate with, or even create a cloud environment requires an understanding of its common inner mechanics, architectural layers, and models, as well as an understanding of the business and ...
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Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture

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Overview

Clouds are distributed technology platforms that leverage sophisticated technology innovations to provide highly scalable and resilient environments that can be remotely utilized by organizations in a multitude of powerful ways. To successfully build upon, integrate with, or even create a cloud environment requires an understanding of its common inner mechanics, architectural layers, and models, as well as an understanding of the business and economic factors that result from the adoption and real-world use of cloud-based services.

In Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture, Thomas Erl, one of the world’s top-selling IT authors, teams up with cloud computing experts and researchers to break down proven and mature cloud computing technologies and practices into a series of well-defined concepts, models, technology mechanisms, and technology architectures, all from an industry-centric and vendor-neutral point of view. In doing so, the book establishes concrete, academic coverage with a focus on structure, clarity, and well-defined building blocks for mainstream cloud computing platforms and solutions.

Subsequent to technology-centric coverage, the book proceeds to establish business-centric models and metrics that allow for the financial assessment of cloud-based IT resources and their comparison to those hosted on traditional IT enterprise premises. Also provided are templates and formulas for calculating SLA-related quality-of-service values and numerous explorations of the SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS delivery models.

With more than 260 figures, 29 architectural models, and 20 mechanisms, this indispensable guide provides a comprehensive education of cloud computing essentials that will never leave your side.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“Cloud computing, more than most disciplines in IT, suffers from too much talk and not enough practice. Thomas Erl has written a timely book that condenses the theory and buttresses it with real-world examples that demystify this important technology. An important guidebook for your journey into the cloud.”
--Scott Morrison, Chief Technology Officer, Layer 7 Technologies

“An excellent, extremely well-written, lucid book that provides a comprehensive picture of cloud computing, covering multiple dimensions of the subject. The case studies presented in the book provide a real-world, practical perspective on leveraging cloud computing in an organization. The book covers a wide range of topics, from technology aspects to the business value provided by cloud computing. This is the best, most comprehensive book on the subject--a must-read for any cloud computing practitioner or anyone who wants to get an in-depth picture of cloud computing concepts and practical implementation.”
--Suzanne D’Souza, SOA/BPM Practice Lead, KBACE Technologies

“This book offers a thorough and detailed description of cloud computing concepts, architectures, and technologies. It serves as a great reference for both newcomers and experts and is a must-read for any IT professional interested in cloud computing.”
--Andre Tost, Senior Technical Staff Member, IBM Software Group

“This is a great book on the topic of cloud computing. It is impressive how the content spans from taxonomy, technology, and architectural concepts to important business considerations for cloud adoption. It really does provide a holistic view to this technology paradigm.”
--Kapil Bakshi, Architecture and Strategy, Cisco Systems Inc.

“I have read every book written by Thomas Erl and Cloud Computing is another excellent publication and demonstration of Thomas Erl’s rare ability to take the most complex topics and provide critical core concepts and technical information in a logical and understandable way.”
--Melanie A. Allison, Principal, Healthcare Technology Practice, Integrated Consulting Services

“Companies looking to migrate applications or infrastructure to the cloud are often misled by buzzwords and industry hype. This work cuts through the hype and provides a detailed look, from investigation to contract to implementation to termination, at what it takes for an organization to engage with cloud service providers. This book really lays out the benefits and struggles with getting a company to an IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS solution.”
--Kevin Davis, Ph.D., Solutions Architect

“Thomas, in his own distinct and erudite style, provides a comprehensive and a definitive book on cloud computing. Just like his previous masterpiece, Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design, this book is sure to engage CxOs, cloud architects, and the developer community involved in delivering software assets on the cloud. Thomas and his authoring team have taken great pains in providing great clarity and detail in documenting cloud architectures, cloud delivery models, cloud governance, and economics of cloud, without forgetting to explain the core of cloud computing that revolves around Internet architecture and virtualization. As a reviewer for this outstanding book, I must admit I have learned quite a lot while reviewing the material. A ‘must have’ book that should adorn everybody’s desk!”
--Vijay Srinivasan, Chief Architect - Technology, Cognizant Technology Solutions

“This book provides comprehensive and descriptive vendor-neutral coverage of cloud computing technology, from both technical and business aspects. It provides a deep-down analysis of cloud architectures and mechanisms that capture the real-world moving parts of cloud platforms. Business aspects are elaborated on to give readers a broader perspective on choosing and defining basic cloud computing business models. Thomas Erl’s Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is an excellent source of knowledge of fundamental and in-depth coverage of cloud computing.”
--Masykur Marhendra Sukmanegara, Communication Media & Technology, Consulting Workforce Accenture

“The richness and depth of the topics discussed are incredibly impressive. The depth and breadth of the subject matter are such that a reader could become an expert in a short amount of time.”
--Jamie Ryan, Solutions Architect, Layer 7 Technologies

“Demystification, rationalization, and structuring of implementation approaches have always been strong parts in each and every one of Thomas Erl’s books. This book is no exception. It provides the definitive, essential coverage of cloud computing and, most importantly, presents this content in a very comprehensive manner. Best of all, this book follows the conventions of the previous service technology series titles, making it read like a natural extension of the library. I strongly believe that this will be another bestseller from one of the top-selling IT authors of the past decade.”
--Sergey Popov, Senior Enterprise Architect SOA/Security, Liberty Global International

“A must-read for anyone involved in cloud design and decision making! This insightful book provides in-depth, objective, vendor-neutral coverage of cloud computing concepts, architecture models, and technologies. It will prove very valuable to anyone who needs to gain a solid understanding of how cloud environments work and how to design and migrate solutions to clouds.”
--Gijs in ’t Veld, Chief Architect, Motion10

“A reference book covering a wide range of aspects related to cloud providers and cloud consumers. If you would like to provide or consume a cloud service and need to know how, this is your book. The book has a clear structure to facilitate a good understanding of the various concepts of cloud.”
--Roger Stoffers, Solution Architect

“Cloud computing has been around for a few years, yet there is still a lot of confusion around the term and what it can bring to developers and deployers alike. This book is a great way of finding out what’s behind the cloud, and not in an abstract or high-level manner: It dives into all of the details that you’d need to know in order to plan for developing applications on cloud and what to look for when using applications or services hosted on a cloud. There are very few books that manage to capture this level of detail about the evolving cloud paradigm as this one does. It’s a must for architects and developers alike.”
--Dr. Mark Little, Vice President, Red Hat

“This book provides a comprehensive exploration of the concepts and mechanics behind clouds. It’s written for anyone interested in delving into the details of how cloud environments function, how they are architected, and how they can impact business. This is the book for any organization seriously considering adopting cloud computing. It will pave the way to establishing your cloud computing roadmap.”
--Damian Maschek, SOA Architect, Deutsche Bahn

“One of the best books on cloud computing I have ever read. It is complete yet vendor technology neutral and successfully explains the major concepts in a well-structured and disciplined way. It goes through all the definitions and provides many hints for organizations or professionals who are approaching and/or assessing cloud solutions. This book gives a complete list of topics playing fundamental roles in the cloud computing discipline. It goes through a full list of definitions very clearly stated. Diagrams are simple to understand and self-contained. Readers with different skill sets, expertise, and backgrounds will be able to understand the concepts seamlessly.”
--Antonio Bruno, Infrastructure and Estate Manager, UBS AG

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is a comprehensive book that focuses on what cloud computing is really all about.... This book will become the foundation on which many organizations will build successful cloud adoption projects. It is a must-read reference for both IT infrastructure and application architects interested in cloud computing or involved in cloud adoption projects. It contains extremely useful and comprehensive information for those who need to build cloud-based architectures or need to explain it to customers thinking about adopting cloud computing technology in their organization.”
--Johan Kumps, SOA Architect, RealDolmen

“This book defines the basic terminology and patterns for the topic--a useful reference for the cloud practitioner. Concepts from multitenancy to hypervisor are presented in a succinct and clear manner. The underlying case studies provide wonderful real-worldness.”
--Dr. Thomas Rischbeck, Principal Architect, ipt

“The book provides a good foundation to cloud services and issues in cloud service design. Chapters highlight key issues that need to be considered in learning how to think in cloud technology terms; this is highly important in today’s business and technology environments where cloud computing plays a central role in connecting user services with virtualized resources and applications.”
--Mark Skilton, Director, Office of Strategy and Technology, Global Infrastructure Services, Capgemini

“The book is well organized and covers basic concepts, technologies, and business models about cloud computing. It defines and explains a comprehensive list of terminologies and glossaries about cloud computing so cloud computing experts can speak and communicate with the same set of standardized language. The book is easy to understand and consistent with early published books from Thomas Erl.... It is a must-read for both beginners and experienced professionals.”
--Jian “Jeff” Zhong, Chief Technology Officer (Acting) and Chief Architect for SOA and Cloud Computing, Futrend Technology Inc.

“Students of the related specialties can fulfill their educational process with very easily understood materials that are broadly illustrated and clearly described. Professors of different disciplines, from business analysis to IT implementation--even legal and financial monitoring--can use the book as an on-table lecturing manual. IT specialists of all ranks and fields of application will find the book as a practical and useful support for sketching solutions unbound to any particular vendor or brand.”
--Alexander Gromoff, Director of Science & Education, Center of Information Control Technologies, Chairman of BPM Chair in Business Informatics Department, National Research University “Higher School of Economics”

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is a comprehensive compendium of all the relevant information about the transformative cloud technology. Erl’s latest title concisely and clearly illustrates the origins and positioning of the cloud paradigm as the next-generation computing model. All the chapters are carefully written and arranged in an easy-to-understand manner. This book will be immeasurably beneficial for business and IT professionals. It is set to shake up and help organize the world of cloud computing.”
--Pethuru Raj, Ph.D., Enterprise Architecture Consultant, Wipro

“A cloud computing book that will stand out and survive the test of time, even in one of the fastest evolving areas of technology. This book does a great job breaking down the high level of complexity of cloud computing into easy-to-understand pieces. It goes beyond the basic, often repeated, explanations. It examines the fundamental concepts and the components, as well as the mechanisms and architectures that make up cloud computing environments. The approach gradually builds the reader’s understanding from the ground up.

“In a rapidly evolving area like cloud computing, it’s easy to focus on details and miss the big picture. The focus on concepts and architectural models instead of vendor-specific details allows readers to quickly gain essential knowledge of complex topics. The concepts come together in the last part of the book, which should be required reading for any decision maker evaluating when and how to start a transition to cloud computing. Its thorough, comprehensive coverage of fundamentals and advanced topics makes the book a valuable resource to keep on your desk or your eBook reader, regardless if you’re new to the topic or you already have cloud experience.

“I highly recommend the book to those looking to implement or evaluate cloud environments, or simply looking to educate themselves in a field that will shape IT over the next decade.”
--Christoph Schittko, Principal Technology Strategist & Cloud Solution Director, Microsoft

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture is an excellent resource for IT professionals and managers who want to learn and understand cloud computing, and who need to select or build cloud systems and solutions. It lays the foundation for cloud concepts, models, technologies, and mechanisms. As the book is vendor-neutral, it will remain valid for many years. We will recommend this book to Oracle customers, partners, and users for their journey toward cloud computing. This book has the potential to become the basis for a cloud computing manifesto, comparable to what was accomplished with the SOA manifesto.”
--Jurgen Kress, Fusion Middleware Partner Adoption, Oracle EMEA

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133387513
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 5/16/2013
  • Series: Prentice Hall Service Technology Series from Thomas Erl
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 528
  • Sales rank: 476,699
  • File size: 31 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Thomas Erl is a top-selling IT author, founder of Arcitura Education, editor of the Service Technology Magazine and series editor of the Prentice Hall Service Technology Series from Thomas Erl. With more than 175,000 copies in print world-wide, his books have become international bestsellers and have been formally endorsed by senior members of major IT organizations, such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Intel, Accenture, IEEE, HL7, MITRE, SAP, CISCO, HP, and many others. As CEO of Arcitura Education Inc. and in cooperation with CloudSchool.com and SOASchool.com, Thomas has led the development of curricula for the internationally recognized Cloud Certified Professional (CCP) and SOA Certified Professional (SOACP) accreditation programs, which have established a series of formal, vendor-neutral industry certifications obtained by thousands of IT professionals around the world. Thomas has toured over 20 countries as a speaker and instructor and regularly participates in international conferences, including Service Technology Symposium and Gartner events. More than 100 articles and interviews by Thomas have been published in numerous publications, including The Wall Street Journal and CIO Magazine.


Dr. Zaigham Mahmood is a published author of six books, four of which are dedicated to cloud computing. He acts as a technology consultant at Debesis Education UK and a Researcher at the University of Derby, UK. He further holds positions as a foreign professor and professor extraordinaire with international educational institutions. Professor Mahmood is a certified cloud trainer and a regular speaker at the International SOA, Cloud + Service Technology Symposium, and he has published more than 100 articles. His specialized areas of research include distributed computing, project management, and e-government.


Professor Ricardo Puttini has 15 years of field experience as a senior IT consultant at major government organizations in Brazil. He has taught several undergraduate and graduate-level courses in service orientation, service-oriented architecture, and cloud computing. Ricardo was the general chair of the 4th International SOA Symposium and 3rd International Cloud Symposium that was held in the spring of 2011. He holds a Ph.D. in Communication Networks (2004) from the University of Brasilia, where he has taught in the Electrical Engineering department since 1998. Ricardo spent 18 months at the L′Ecole Superieure d′Electricite (Supelec) in Rennes, France, during his Ph.D., where he started researching distributed system architecture and security.

 

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Table of Contents

Foreword     xxix

Acknowledgments     xxxiii

CHAPTER 1: Introduction     1

1.1 Objectives of This Book     3

1.2 What This Book Does Not Cover     4

1.3 Who This Book Is For     4

1.4 How This Book Is Organized     4

1.5 Conventions     9

Symbols and Figures     9

Summary of Key Points     9

1.6 Additional Information     9

Updates, Errata, and Resources (www.servicetechbooks.com)      9

Referenced Specifications (www.servicetechspecs.com)      10

The Service Technology Magazine (www.servicetechmag.com)      10

International Service Technology Symposium (www.servicetechsymposium.com)      10

What Is Cloud? (www.whatiscloud.com)      10

What Is REST? (www.whatisrest.com)      10

Cloud Computing Design Patterns (www.cloudpatterns.org)      10

Service-Orientation (www.serviceorientation.com)      11

CloudSchool.com Certified Cloud (CCP) Professional (www.cloudschool.com)      11

SOASchool.com SOA Certified (SOACP) Professional (www.soaschool.com)      11

Notification Service     11

CHAPTER 2: Case Study Background     13

2.1 Case Study #1: ATN     14

Technical Infrastructure and Environment     14

Business Goals and New Strategy     15

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy     15

2.2 Case Study #2: DTGOV     16

Technical Infrastructure and Environment     17

Business Goals and New Strategy     18

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy     19

2.3 Case Study #3: Innovartus Technologies Inc     20

Technical Infrastructure and Environment     20

Business Goals and Strategy     20

Roadmap and Implementation Strategy     21

PART I: FUNDAMENTAL CLOUD COMPUTING

CHAPTER 3: Understanding Cloud Computing     25

3.1 Origins and Influences     26

A Brief History     26

Definitions     27

Business Drivers     28

Capacity Planning     28

Cost Reduction     29

Organizational Agility     30

Technology Innovations     30

Clustering     31

Grid Computing     31

Virtualization     32

Technology Innovations vs. Enabling Technologies     32

3.2 Basic Concepts and Terminology     33

Cloud     33

IT Resource     34

On-Premise     36

Cloud Consumers and Cloud Providers     36

Scaling     37

Horizontal Scaling     37

Vertical Scaling     37

Cloud Service     38

Cloud Service Consumer      40

3.3 Goals and Benefits     40

Reduced Investments and Proportional Costs     41

Increased Scalability     42

Increased Availability and Reliability     43

3.4 Risks and Challenges     45

Increased Security Vulnerabilities     45

Reduced Operational Governance Control     45

Limited Portability Between Cloud Providers     47

Multi-Regional Compliance and Legal Issues     48

CHAPTER 4: Fundamental Concepts and Models     51

4.1 Roles and Boundaries     52

Cloud Provider     52

Cloud Consumer     52

Cloud Service Owner     53

Cloud Resource Administrator     54

Additional Roles     56

Organizational Boundary     56

Trust Boundary     57

4.2 Cloud Characteristics     58

On-Demand Usage     59

Ubiquitous Access     59

Multitenancy (and Resource Pooling)      59

Elasticity     61

Measured Usage     61

Resiliency     61

4.3 Cloud Delivery Models     63

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)      64

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)      65

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)      66

Comparing Cloud Delivery Models     67

Combining Cloud Delivery Models     69

IaaS + PaaS     69

IaaS + PaaS + SaaS     72

4.4 Cloud Deployment Models     73

Public Clouds     73

Community Clouds     74

Private Clouds     75

Hybrid Clouds     77

Other Cloud Deployment Models     78

CHAPTER 5: Cloud-Enabling Technology     79

5.1 Broadband Networks and Internet Architecture     80

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)      80

Connectionless Packet Switching (Datagram Networks)      83

Router-Based Interconnectivity     83

Physical Network     84

Transport Layer Protocol      84

Application Layer Protocol     85

Technical and Business Considerations     85

Connectivity Issues     85

Network Bandwidth and Latency Issues     88

Cloud Carrier and Cloud Provider Selection     89

5.2 Data Center Technology     90

Virtualization     90

Standardization and Modularity     90

Automation     91

Remote Operation and Management     92

High Availability     92

Security-Aware Design, Operation, and Management     92

Facilities     92

Computing Hardware     93

Storage Hardware     93

Network Hardware     95

Carrier and External Networks Interconnection     95

Web-Tier Load Balancing and Acceleration     95

LAN Fabric     95

SAN Fabric     95

NAS Gateways     95

Other Considerations     96

5.3 Virtualization Technology     97

Hardware Independence     98

Server Consolidation     98

Resource Replication     98

Operating System-Based Virtualization     99

Hardware-Based Virtualization     101

Virtualization Management     102

Other Considerations     102

5.4 Web Technology     103

Basic Web Technology     104

Web Applications     104

5.5 Multitenant Technology     106

5.6 Service Technology     108

Web Services     109

REST Services     110

Service Agents     111

Service Middleware     112

5.7 Case Study Example     113

CHAPTER 6: Fundamental Cloud Security     117

6.1 Basic Terms and Concepts     118

Confidentiality     118

Integrity     119

Authenticity     119

Availability     119

Threat     120

Vulnerability     120

Risk     120

Security Controls     120

Security Mechanisms     121

Security Policies     121

6.2 Threat Agents     121

Anonymous Attacker     122

Malicious Service Agent     123

Trusted Attacker     123

Malicious Insider     123

6.3 Cloud Security Threats     124

Traffic Eavesdropping     124

Malicious Intermediary     124

Denial of Service     126

Insufficient Authorization     127

Virtualization Attack     127

Overlapping Trust Boundaries     129

6.4 Additional Considerations     131

Flawed Implementations     131

Security Policy Disparity     132

Contracts     132

Risk Management     133

6.5 Case Study Example     135

PART II: CLOUD COMPUTING MECHANISMS

CHAPTER 7: Cloud Infrastructure Mechanisms     139

7.1 Logical Network Perimeter     140

Case Study Example     142

7.2 Virtual Server     144

Case Study Example     145

7.3 Cloud Storage Device     149

Cloud Storage Levels     149

Network Storage Interfaces     150

Object Storage Interfaces     151

Database Storage Interfaces     151

Relational Data Storage     151

Non-Relational Data Storage     152

Case Study Example     152

7.4 Cloud Usage Monitor     155

Monitoring Agent     155

Resource Agent     155

Polling Agent     157

Case Study Example     157

7.5 Resource Replication     161

Case Study Example     162

7.6 Ready-Made Environment     166

Case Study Example     167

CHAPTER 8: Specialized Cloud Mechanisms     169

8.1 Automated Scaling Listener     170

Case Study Example     172

8.2 Load Balancer     176

Case Study Example     177

8.3 SLA Monitor     178

Case Study Example     180

SLA Monitor Polling Agent     180

SLA Monitoring Agent     180

8.4 Pay-Per-Use Monitor     184

Case Study Example     187

8.5 Audit Monitor     189

Case Study Example     189

8.6 Failover System     191

Active-Active     191

Active-Passive     194

Case Study Example     196

8.7 Hypervisor     200

Case Study Example     201

8.8 Resource Cluster     203

Case Study Example     206

8.9 Multi-Device Broker     208

Case Study Example     209

8.10 State Management Database     210

Case Study Example     211

CHAPTER 9: Cloud Management Mechanisms     213

9.1 Remote Administration System     214

Case Study Example     219

9.2 Resource Management System     219

Case Study Example     221

9.3 SLA Management System     222

Case Study Example     224

9.4 Billing Management System     225

Case Study Example     227

CHAPTER 10: Cloud Security Mechanisms     229

10.1 Encryption     230

Symmetric Encryption     231

Asymmetric Encryption     231

Case Study Example     233

10.2 Hashing     234

Case Study Example     235

10.3 Digital Signature     236

Case Study Example     238

10.4 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)      240

Case Study Example     242

10.5 Identity and Access Management (IAM)      243

Case Study Example     244

10.6 Single Sign-On (SSO)      244

Case Study Example     246

10.7 Cloud-Based Security Groups     247

Case Study Example     249

10.8 Hardened Virtual Server Images     251

Case Study Example     252

PART III: CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE

CHAPTER 11: Fundamental Cloud Architectures     255

11.1 Workload Distribution Architecture     256

11.2 Resource Pooling Architecture     257

11.3 Dynamic Scalability Architecture     262

11.4 Elastic Resource Capacity Architecture     265

11.5 Service Load Balancing Architecture     268

11.6 Cloud Bursting Architecture     271

11.7 Elastic Disk Provisioning Architecture     272

11.8 Redundant Storage Architecture     275

11.9 Case Study Example     277

CHAPTER 12: Advanced Cloud Architectures     281

12.1 Hypervisor Clustering Architecture     282

12.2 Load Balanced Virtual Server Instances Architecture     288

12.3 Non-Disruptive Service Relocation Architecture     293

12.4 Zero Downtime Architecture     298

12.5 Cloud Balancing Architecture     299

12.6 Resource Reservation Architecture     301

12.7 Dynamic Failure Detection and Recovery Architecture     306

12.8 Bare-Metal Provisioning Architecture     309

12.9 Rapid Provisioning Architecture     312

12.10 Storage Workload Management Architecture     315

12.11 Case Study Example     321

CHAPTER 13: Specialized Cloud Architectures     323

13.1 Direct I/O Access Architecture     324

13.2 Direct LUN Access Architecture     326

13.3 Dynamic Data Normalization Architecture     329

13.4 Elastic Network Capacity Architecture     330

13.5 Cross-Storage Device Vertical Tiering Architecture     332

13.6 Intra-Storage Device Vertical Data Tiering Architecture     337

13.7 Load Balanced Virtual Switches Architecture     340

13.8 Multipath Resource Access Architecture     342

13.9 Persistent Virtual Network Configuration Architecture     344

13.10 Redundant Physical Connection for Virtual Servers Architecture     347

13.11 Storage Maintenance Window Architecture     350

PART IV: WORKING WITH CLOUDS

CHAPTER 14: Cloud Delivery Model Considerations     359

14.1 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Provider Perspective     360

Building IaaS Environments     360

Data Centers     361

Scalability and Reliability     363

Monitoring     363

Security     364

Equipping PaaS Environments     364

Scalability and Reliability     365

Monitoring     367

Security     367

Optimizing SaaS Environments     367

Security     370

14.2 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Consumer Perspective     370

Working with IaaS Environments     370

IT Resource Provisioning Considerations     372

Working with PaaS Environments     373

IT Resource Provisioning Considerations     373

Working with SaaS Services     374

14.3 Case Study Example     375

CHAPTER 15: Cost Metrics and Pricing Models     379

15.1 Business Cost Metrics     380

Up-Front and On-Going Costs     380

Additional Costs     381

Case Study Example     382

Product Catalog Browser     382

On-Premise Up-Front Costs     382

On-Premise On-Going Costs     383

Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs     383

Cloud-Based On-Going Costs     383

Client Database     385

On-Premise Up-Front Costs     385

On-Premise On-Going Costs     385

Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs     385

Cloud-Based On-Going Costs     385

15.2 Cloud Usage Cost Metrics     387

Network Usage     387

Inbound Network Usage Metric     387

Outbound Network Usage Metric     388

Intra-Cloud WAN Usage Metric     388

Server Usage     389

On-Demand Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric     389

Reserved Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric     389

Cloud Storage Device Usage     390

On-Demand Storage Space Allocation Metric     390

I/O Data Transferred Metric     390

Cloud Service Usage     390

Application Subscription Duration Metric     390

Number of Nominated Users Metric     391

Number of Transactions Users Metric      391

15.3 Cost Management Considerations     391

Pricing Models     393

Additional Considerations     395

Case Study Example     396

Virtual Server On-Demand Instance Allocation     397

Virtual Server Reserved Instance Allocation     399

Cloud Storage Device     401

WAN Traffic     401

CHAPTER 16: Service Quality Metrics and SLAs     403

16.1 Service Quality Metrics     404

Service Availability Metrics     405

Availability Rate Metric     405

Outage Duration Metric     406

Service Reliability Metrics     407

Mean-Time Between Failures (MTBF) Metric     407

Reliability Rate Metric     407

Service Performance Metrics     407

Network Capacity Metric     408

Storage Device Capacity Metric     408

Server Capacity Metric     408

Web Application Capacity Metric     408

Instance Starting Time Metric     409

Response Time Metric     409

Completion Time Metric     409

Service Scalability Metrics     409

Storage Scalability (Horizontal) Metric     410

Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric     410

Server Scalability (Vertical) Metric     410

Service Resiliency Metrics     411

Mean-Time to Switchover (MTSO) Metric     411

Mean-Time System Recovery (MTSR) Metric     412

16.2 Case Study Example     412

16.3 SLA Guidelines     413

16.4 Case Study Example     416

Scope and Applicability     416

Service Quality Guarantees     416

Definitions     417

Usage of Financial Credits     417

SLA Exclusions     418

PART V: APPENDICES

Appendix A: Case Study Conclusions     421

A.1 ATN     422

A.2 DTGOV     422

A.3 Innovartus     424

Appendix B: Industry Standards Organizations     427

B.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)      428

B.2 Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)      429

B.3 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)      429

B.4 Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)      430

B.5 Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS)      430

B.6 The Open Group     430

B.7 Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)      431

B.8 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)      431

B.9 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)      431

B.10 Liberty Alliance     432

B.11 Open Grid Forum (OGF)      432

Appendix C: Mapping Mechanisms to Characteristics     433

Appendix D: Data Center Facilities (TIA-942)      437

D.1 Primary Rooms     438

Electrical Room     438

Mechanical Room     438

Storage and Staging     438

Offices, Operations Center, and Support     438

Telecommunications Entrance     438

Computer Room     439

D.2 Environmental Controls     440

External Electrical Power Provider Interconnection     440

Power Distribution     441

Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS)      441

Power Engine-Generator     441

D.3 Infrastructure Redundancy Summary     442

Appendix E: Emerging Technologies     443

E.1 Autonomic Computing     444

E.2 Grid Computing     445

Service Grids     446

Appendix F: Cloud Provisioning Contracts     449

F.1 Cloud Provisioning Contract Structure     450

Terms of Service     452

Service Usage Policy     452

Security and Privacy Policy     453

Warranties and Liabilities     455

Rights and Responsibilities     455

Termination and Renewal     456

Specifications and SLAs     456

Pricing and Billing     457

Other Issues     457

Legal and Compliance Issues     457

Auditability and Accountability     457

Changes in the Contract Terms and Conditions     457

F.2 Cloud Provider Selection Guidelines     458

Cloud Provider Viability     458

Appendix G: Cloud Business Case Template     461

G.1 Business Case Identification     462

G.2 Business Needs     462

G.3 Target Cloud Environment     463

G.4 Technical Issues     464

G.5 Economic Factors     464

About the Authors     465

About the Foreword Contributor     467

About the Contributors     469

Index     471

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