The Architecture of Happiness

The Architecture of Happiness

by Alain de Botton


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780307277244
Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
Publication date: 04/08/2008
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 288
Sales rank: 110,413
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 8.00(h) x 0.50(d)

About the Author

Alain de Botton is the author of three works of fiction and five of nonfiction, including How Proust Can Change Your Life, The Consolations of Philosophy, and The Art of Travel. He lives in London.

Read an Excerpt

I. The Significance of Architecture


A terraced house on a tree-lined street. Earlier today, the house rang with the sound of children's cries and adult voices, but since the last occupant took off (with her satchel) a few hours ago, it has been left to sample the morning by itself. The sun has risen over the gables of the buildings opposite and now washes through the ground- floor windows, painting the interior walls a buttery yellow and warming the grainy-red brick façade. Within shafts of sunlight, platelets of dust move as if in obedience to the rhythms of a silent waltz. From the hallway, the low murmur of accelerating traffic can be detected a few blocks away. Occasionally, the letter-box opens with a rasp to admit a plaintive leaflet.

The house gives signs of enjoying the emptiness. It is rearranging itself after the night, clearing its pipes and cracking its joints. This dignified and seasoned creature, with its coppery veins and wooden feet nestled in a bed of clay, has endured much: balls bounced against its garden flanks, doors slammed in rage, headstands attempted along its corridors, the weight and sighs of electrical equipment and the probings of inexperienced plumbers into its innards. A family of four shelters in it, joined by a colony of ants around the foundations and, in spring time, by broods of robins in the chimney stack. It also lends a shoulder to a frail (or just indolent) sweet-pea which leans against the garden wall, indulging the peripatetic courtship of a circle of bees.

The house has grown into a knowledgeable witness. It has been party to early seductions, it has watched homework being written, it has observed swaddled babies freshly arrived from hospital, it has been surprised in the middle of the night by whispered conferences in the kitchen. It has experienced winter evenings when its windows were as cold as bags of frozen peas and midsummer dusks when its brick walls held the warmth of newly baked bread.

It has provided not only physical but also psychological sanctuary. It has been a guardian of identity. Over the years, its owners have returned from periods away and, on looking around them, remembered who they were. The flagstones on the ground floor speak of serenity and aged grace, while the regularity of the kitchen cabinets offers a model of unintimidating order and discipline. The dining table, with its waxy tablecloth printed with large buttercups, suggests a burst of playfulness which is thrown into relief by a sterner concrete wall nearby. Along the stairs, small still-lives of eggs and lemons draw attention to the intricacy and beauty of everyday things. On a ledge beneath a window, a glass jar of cornflowers helps to resist the pull towards dejection. On the upper floor, a narrow empty room allows space for restorative thoughts to hatch, its skylight giving out onto impatient clouds migrating rapidly over cranes and chimney pots.

Although this house may lack solutions to a great many of its occupants' ills, its rooms nevertheless give evidence of a happiness to which architecture has made its distinctive contribution.


Yet a concern for architecture has never been free from a degree of suspicion. Doubts have been raised about the subject's seriousness, its moral worth and its cost. A thought-provoking number of the world's most intelligent people have disdained any interest in decoration and design, equating contentment with discarnate and invisible matters instead.

The Ancient Greek Stoic philosopher Epictetus is said to have demanded of a heart-broken friend whose house had burnt to the ground, 'If you really understand what governs the universe, how can you yearn for bits of stone and pretty rock?' (It is unclear how much longer the friendship lasted.) Legend recounts that after hearing the voice of God, the Christian hermit Alexandra sold her house, shut herself in a tomb and never looked at the outside world again, while her fellow hermit Paul of Scete slept on a blanket on the floor of a windowless mud hut and recited 300 prayers every day, suffering only when he heard of another holy man who had managed 700 and slept in a coffin.

Such austerity has been a historical constant. In the spring of 1137 the Cistercian monk St Bernard of Clairvaux travelled all the way around Lake Geneva without noticing it was even there. Likewise, after four years in his monastery, St Bernard could not report whether the dining area had a vaulted ceiling (it does) or how many windows there were in the sanctuary of his church (three). On a visit to the Charterhouse of Dauphiné, St Bernard astonished his hosts by arriving on a magnificent white horse diametrically opposed to the ascetic values he professed, but he explained that he had borrowed the animal from a wealthy uncle and had simply failed to register its appearance on a four-day journey across France.


Nevertheless, such determined efforts to scorn visual experience have always been matched by equally persistent attempts to mould the material world to graceful ends. People have strained their backs carving flowers into their roof beams and their eyesight embroidering animals onto their tablecloths. They have given up weekends to hide unsightly cables behind ledges. They have thought carefully about appropriate kitchen work-surfaces. They have imagined living in unattainably expensive houses pictured in magazines and then felt sad, as one does on passing an attractive stranger in a crowded street.

We seem divided between an urge to override our senses and numb ourselves to our settings and a contradictory impulse to acknowledge the extent to which our identities are indelibly connected to, and will shift along with, our locations. An ugly room can coagulate any loose suspicions as to the incompleteness of life, while a sun-lit one set with honey-coloured limestone tiles can lend support to whatever is most hopeful within us.

Belief in the significance of architecture is premised on the notion that we are, for better or for worse, different people in different places - and on the conviction that it is architecture's task to render vivid to us who we might ideally be.


We are sometimes eager to celebrate the influence of our surroundings. In the living room of a house in the Czech Republic, we see an example of how walls, chairs and floors can combine to create an atmosphere in which the best sides of us are offered the opportunity to flourish. We accept with gratitude the power that a single room can possess.

But sensitivity to architecture also has its more problematic aspects. If one room can alter how we feel, if our happiness can hang on the colour of the walls or the shape of a door, what will happen to us in most of the places we are forced to look at and inhabit? What will we experience in a house with prison-like windows, stained carpet tiles and plastic curtains?

It is to prevent the possibility of permanent anguish that we can be led to shut our eyes to most of what is around us, for we are never far from damp stains and cracked ceilings, shattered cities and rusting dockyards. We can't remain sensitive indefinitely to environments which we don't have the means to alter for the good - and end up as conscious as we can afford to be. Echoing the attitude of Stoic philosophers or St Bernard around Lake Geneva, we may find ourselves arguing that, ultimately, it doesn't much matter what buildings look like, what is on the ceiling or how the wall is treated - professions of detachment that stem not so much from an insensitivity to beauty as from a desire to deflect the sadness we would face if we left ourselves open to all of beauty's many absences.


There is no shortage of reasons to be suspicious of the ambition to create great architecture. Buildings rarely make palpable the efforts that their construction demands. They are coyly silent about the bankruptcies, the delays, the fear and the dust that they impose. A nonchalant appearance is a frequent feature of their charm. It is only when we try our own hand at construction that we are initiated into the torments associated with persuading materials and other humans to cooperate with our designs, with ensuring that two pieces of glass will be joined in a neat line, that a lamp will hang symmetrically over the stairs, that a boiler will light up when it should or that concrete pillars will marry a roof without complaint.

Even when we have attained our goals, our buildings have a grievous tendency to fall apart again with precipitate speed. It can be hard to walk into a freshly decorated house without feeling preemptively sad at the decay impatiently waiting to begin: how soon the walls will crack, the white cupboards will yellow and the carpets stain. The ruins of the Ancient World offer a mocking lesson for anyone waiting for builders to finish their work. How proud the householders of Pompeii must have been.

In his essay 'On Transience' (1916) Sigmund Freud recalled a walk he took in the Dolomite Mountains with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke. It was an exquisite summer's day; the flowers were in bloom and brightly coloured butterflies danced above the meadows. The psychoanalyst was glad to be outdoors (it had been raining all week), but his companion walked with his head bowed, his eyes fixed on the ground, and remained taciturn throughout the excursion. It wasn't that Rilke was oblivious to the beauty around him; he simply could not overlook how impermanent everything was. In Freud's words, he was unable to forget 'that all this beauty was fated to extinction, that it would vanish when winter came, like all human beauty and all the beauty that men have created or may create'.

Freud was unsympathetic; for him, the capacity to love anything attractive, however fragile it might be, was a hallmark of psychological health. But Rilke's stance, though inconvenient, helpfully emphasises how it can be those most in thrall to beauty who will be especially aware of, and saddened by, its ephemeral character. Such melancholic enthusiasts will see the moth hole beneath the curtain swatch and the ruin beneath the plan. They may at the last moment cancel an appointment with an estate agent, having realised that the house under offer, as well as the city and even civilisation itself, will soon enough be reduced to fragments of shattered brick over which cockroaches will triumphantly crawl. They may prefer to rent a room or live in a barrel out of a reluctance to contemplate the slow disintegration of the objects of their love.

At its apex, a passion for architecture may turn us into aesthetes, eccentric figures who must watch over their houses with the vigilance of museum guards, patrolling their rooms in search of stains, a damp cloth or sponge in hand. Aesthetes will have no choice but to forgo the company of small children and, during dinner with friends, will have to ignore the conversation in order to focus on whether someone might lean back and inadvertently leave a head-shaped imprint on the wall.

It would be pleasant to refuse in a muscular spirit to lend stray blemishes genuine significance. However, aesthetes force us to consider whether happiness may not sometimes turn on the presence or absence of a fingerprint, whether in certain situations beauty and ugliness may not lie only a few millimetres apart, whether a single mark might not wreck a wall or an errant brush stroke undo a landscape painting. We should thank these sensitive spirits for pointing us with theatrical honesty towards the possibility of a genuine antithesis between competing values: for example, an attachment to beautiful architecture and the pursuit of an exuberant and affectionate family life.

How wise were the ancient philosophers in suggesting that we exclude from our vision of contentment anything that might one day be covered by lava or blow down in a hurricane, succumb to a chocolate smear or absorb a wine stain.


Architecture is perplexing, too, in how inconsistent is its capacity to generate the happiness on which its claim to our attention is founded. While an attractive building may on occasion flatter an ascending mood, there will be times when the most congenial of locations will be unable to dislodge our sadness or misanthropy.

We can feel anxious and envious even though the floor we're standing on has been imported from a remote quarry, and finely sculpted window frames have been painted a soothing grey. Our inner metronome can be unimpressed by the efforts of workmen to create a fountain or nurture a symmetrical line of oak trees. We can fall into a petty argument which ends in threats of divorce in a building by Geoffrey Bawa or Louis Kahn. Houses can invite us to join them in a mood which we find ourselves incapable of summoning. The noblest architecture can sometimes do less for us than a siesta or an aspirin.

Those who have made architectural beauty their life's work know only too well how futile their efforts can prove. After an exhaustive study of the buildings of Venice, in a moment of depressive lucidity, John Ruskin acknowledged that few Venetians in fact seemed elevated by their city, perhaps the most beautiful urban tapestry in the world. Alongside St Mark's Church (described by Ruskin in The Stones of Venice as 'a Book of Common Prayer, a vast illuminated missal, bound with alabaster instead of parchment, studded with porphyry pillars instead of jewels, and written within and without in letters of enamel and gold'), they sat in cafés, read the papers, sunbathed, bickered and stole from one another as, high on the church's roof, unobserved, 'the images of Christ and His angels looked down upon them.'

Endowed with a power that is as unreliable as it often is inexpressible, architecture will always compete poorly with utilitarian demands for humanity's resources. How hard it is to make a case for the cost of tearing down and rebuilding a mean but serviceable street. How awkward to have to defend, in the face of more tangible needs, the benefits of realigning a crooked lamppost or replacing an ill-matched window frame. Beautiful architecture has none of the unambiguous advantages of a vaccine or a bowl of rice. Its construction will hence never be raised to a dominant political priority, for even if the whole of the man-made world could, through relentless effort and sacrifice, be modelled to rival St Mark's Square, even if we could spend the rest of our lives in the Villa Rotonda or the Glass House, we would still often be in a bad mood.


Not only do beautiful houses falter as guarantors of happiness, they can also be accused of failing to improve the characters of those who live in them.

It seems reasonable to suppose that people will possess some of the qualities of the buildings they are drawn to: to expect that if they are alive to the charm of an ancient farmhouse with walls made of irregular chiselled stones set in light mortar.

From the Hardcover edition.

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The Architecture of Happiness 3.6 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 24 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I'm not an expert on architecture or any sort of construction, but this book pulled me in at once and entertained me from cover to cover. I haven't read any other of de Botton's books before, or yet, but I want to after The Architecture of Happiness. It's riddled with fantastic pictures of all different architecture styles, it makes understanding the language of building comprehendable, and it's just a great book. It also starred in a recent movie, 500 Days of Summer, which I was happy to see. Just pick it up once and you'll be hooked.
rochiel13 on LibraryThing 22 hours ago
a definitive reading for architecture student / enthusiast. detailed perspective about architecture around us, with witty humour and philosophical language
chellerystick on LibraryThing 2 days ago
While I can't say that architecture is *always* meant to balance the current terrors of society, I do think de Botton is right that this is a large part of art movements. He also gives a bit of a primer on the basic art principles (balance, coherence) that are applied to architecture, and he gives many great examples with actually useful pictures. I think "close readings" of a few buildings and some more examples of the forces that motivate cross-cultural architecture would be all I would add to this book. It is very lovingly written and the language is a pleasure.
ariadna73 on LibraryThing 2 days ago
I was expecting something else about this book. I thought that it will show me more concepts about ho whappiness is understood, but it was another kind of essay.In this book, De Botton shows us how he thinks the constructions or buildings that surrounds us can influence our animic state. This is interesting, but sometimes I felt a little tired reading this author.
soylentgreen23 on LibraryThing 3 days ago
This is the third of De Botton's books that I have read. I enjoyed 'The Consolations of Philosophy', as it taught me a lot about the history of philosophy and about some of its prime movers. De Botton kept himself out of the text as much as possible, and let the philosophers' words shine on their own.Then I had my first real meeting with Proust, in 'How Proust Can Change Your Life'. Again, it was not De Botton's writing that most impressed me, although it was good in its own way. De Botton proved a most capable gatekeeper to a writing talent I hope to enjoy some other time, but who was extremely able to express his ideas himself.Finally, I have experienced what De Botton can do when he writes something truly his own, about people who certainly communicate a lot to the world, but who generally do it nonverbally - architects.De Botton examines what it is to build, and to build beautifully. He looks to philosophy to provide answers to the questions that drive architectural fashions, and offers some insights into why beautiful buildings are beautiful and ugly ones so overwhelmingly ugly. He writes lucidly and with a personal touch that makes his essay seem almost conversational at times.This is without a doubt the best book I have read about architecture; I learnt a lot that I am sure soon to forget, so this book will keep its place on my shelf for years and years, always ready to remind me of the secrets of the four walls around me.
amydross on LibraryThing 3 months ago
I love Alain de Botton! But I simply couldn't read this one. Maybe it's because I know too much about architecture, but all his observations this time seemed really banal to me. I'm sorry, Alain!
vesuvian on LibraryThing 3 months ago
Alain de Botton is a cute, smart guy with a nice family, well-lived-in house in London, and (apparently) a nice family. His earlier books were well received, although I haven't yet finished reading Proust (he wrote "How Proust Can Change Your Life") and can't personally testify as to the results. In this book, he does an excellent job of dissecting spaces, then presenting historic examples side-by-side with modern examples. Unlike most books, the illustrations actually fit with the text. Bravo, Alain! Some co-workers didn't finish it, and if I couldn't get through "Proust", I can't blame them for this short but thick philosophical work. It requires real effort.
Ellouise on LibraryThing 3 months ago
We are influenced in different ways. Architecture & design of space can change our view of ourselves & our world.
petrojoh on LibraryThing 3 months ago
A beautifully philosophical perspective of architecture. The ideas are compelling, whether or not you agree with them. You will look at buildings differently than before.
janemarieprice on LibraryThing 3 months ago
This short book covers the theory of the insubstantial things which make architecture beautiful. It is somewhat interesting but tends to repeat itself and is not so useful for architects.
jcbrunner on LibraryThing 3 months ago
Having bought the book on the strength of a witty interview, I was disappointed by this meandering work. The title poses an interesting question. How can buildings help us feeling better? De Botton's short, depressing and unhelpful answer seems to be: They can't.Curiously, De Botton sides with Le Corbusier when the famous Swiss architect is repeatedly implored by his clients to fix a leaking roof. The beauty of the building, the Villa Savoye, is more important to both De Botton and Le Corbusier than the well-being of its inhabitants. What use is a beautiful building if it hurts its inhabitants? The neglect of a building's function may be typical for an uncaring philosopher but does not help answering the title question.Even if De Botton's criteria (order, balance, elegance, coherence, self-knowledge) are only aesthetic, his analysis remains flawed by a muddled understanding of the terms. He contrasts "order" with "complexity" whereas the correct pairing is order-chaos and simplicity-complexity. His false pairing leads him to strange, arbitrary conclusions, which a deeper knowledge of architectural history might have prevented. The lack of a bibliography makes an evaluation of his architectural understanding difficult.While De Botton finally rejects Le Corbusier's totalitarian visions, he fails to understand the beauty of democratic building. He rants against the architectural ignorance of the home-buying middle classes and yearns for aristocracy and kings - as if autocratic rulers (or CEOs) somehow had better taste. The book fails to provide readers with tools to help assess the question how architecture can increase happiness. The only redeeming aspect of the book are its wonderful black and white pictures.
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