Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.
CLEP® is the most popular credit-by-examination program in the country, accepted by more than 2,900 colleges and universities. For over 15 years, REA has helped students pass the CLEP® exam and earn college credit while reducing their tuition costs.
Our CLEP® test preps are perfect for adults returning to college (or attending for the first time), military service members, high-school graduates looking to earn college credit, or home-schooled students with knowledge that can translate into college credit.
There are many different ways to prepare for the CLEP® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. Our test prep for CLEP® Introductory Psychology and the free online tools that come with it, will allow you to create a personalized CLEP® study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.
Here's how it works:
Diagnostic exam at the REA Study Center focuses your study
Our online diagnostic exam pinpoints your strengths and shows you exactly where you need to focus your study. Armed with this information, you can personalize your prep and review where you need it the most.
Most complete subject review for CLEP® Introductory Psychology
Our targeted review covers all the material you'll be expected to know for the exam and includes a glossary of must-know terms.
Two full-length practice exams
The online REA Study Center gives you two full-length practice tests and the most powerful scoring analysis and diagnostic tools available today. Instant score reports help you zero in on the CLEP® Introductory Psychology topics that give you trouble now and show you how to arrive at the correct answer-so you'll be prepared on test day.
REA is the acknowledged leader in CLEP® preparation, with the most extensive library of CLEP® titles available. Our test preps for CLEP® exams help you earn valuable college credit, save on tuition, and get a head start on your college degree.
About the Author
Don J. Sharpsteen is the recipient of the University of Missouri–Rolla College of Arts and Sciences Excellence in Teaching Award. He received his doctorate in Social Psychology from the University of Denver in 1988. Dr. Sharpsteen has taught courses in social psychology, personality, motivation and emotion, developmental psychology, learning, psychoanalysis, evolutionary psychology, close relationships, research methods, and statistics.
His current research focuses on the cognitive representation of emotion knowledge and on the social psychological processes involved in gossip. His research has been published in a variety of psychology journals and edited books. He is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Missouri–Rolla.
Read an Excerpt
CHAPTER 1PASSING THE CLEP INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY EXAMCongratulations! You’re joining the millions of people who have discovered the value and educational advantage offered by the College Board’s College-Level Examination Program, or CLEP. This test prep covers everything you need to know about the CLEP Introductory Psychology exam, and will help you earn the college credit you deserve while reducing your tuition costs.GETTING STARTED
There are many different ways to prepare for a CLEP exam. What’s best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge.
This book, and the online tools that come with it, allow you to create a personalized study plan through three simple steps: assessment of your knowledge, targeted review of exam content, and reinforcement in the areas where you need the most help. Let’s get started and see how this system works.Test Yourself & Get Feedback - Score reports from your online diagnostic and practice tests give you a fast way to pinpoint what you already know and where you need to spend more time studying.Review with the Book - Study the topics tested on the CLEP exam. Targeted review chapters cover everything you need to know.Improve Your Score - Armed with your score reports, you can personalize your study plan. Review the parts of the book where you’re weakest and study the answer explanations for the test questions you answered incorrectly.THE REA STUDY CENTER
The best way to personalize your study plan and focus on your weaknesses is to get feedback on what you know and what you don’t know. At the online REA Study Center, you can access two types of assessment: a diagnostic exam and full-length practice exams. Each of these tools provides true-to-format questions and delivers a detailed score report that follows the topics set by the College Board.Diagnostic Exam
Before you begin your review with the book, take the online diagnostic exam. Use your score report to help evaluate your overall understanding of the subject, so you can focus your study on the topics where you need the most review.Full-Length Practice Exams
These practice tests give you the most complete picture of your strengths and weaknesses. After you’ve finished reviewing with the book, test what you’ve learned by taking the first of the two online practice exams. Review your score report, then go back and study any topics you missed. Take the second practice test to ensure you have mastered the material and are ready for test day.If you’re studying and don’t have Internet access, you can take the printed tests in the book. These are the same practice tests offered at the REA Study Center, but without the added benefits of timed testing conditions and diagnostic score reports. Because the actual exam is computer-based, we recommend you take at least one practice test online to simulate test-day conditions.AN OVERVIEW OF THE EXAM
The CLEP Introductory Psychology exam consists of approximately 95 multiple-choice questions, each with five possible answer choices, to be answered in 90 minutes. The exam covers the material one would find in a college-level introductory psychology course. The exam stresses basic facts and principles, as well as general theoretical approaches used by psychologists.The approximate breakdown of topics is as follows:8–9% History, Approaches, Methods8–9% Biological Bases of Behavior7–8% Sensation and Perception5–6% States of Consciousness10–11% The Sociological Perspective8–9% Cognition7–8% Motivation and Emotion7–8% Personality8–9% Psychological Disorders and Health7–8% Treatment of Psychological Disorders7–8% Social Psychology3–4% Statistics, Tests, and MeasurementALL ABOUT THE CLEP PROGRAM
What is the CLEP?
CLEP is the most widely accepted credit-by-examination program in North America. CLEP exams are available in 33 subjects and test the material commonly required in an introductory-level college course. Examinees can earn from three to twelve credits at more than 2,900 colleges and universities in the U.S. and Canada. For a complete list of the CLEP subject examinations offered, visit the College Board website: www.collegeboard.org/clep.Who takes CLEP exams?
CLEP exams are typically taken by people who have acquired knowledge outside the classroom and who wish to bypass certain college courses and earn college credit. The CLEP program is designed to reward examinees for learning—no matter where or how that knowledge was acquired.Although most CLEP examinees are adults returning to college, many graduating high school seniors, enrolled college students, military personnel, veterans, and international students take CLEP exams to earn college credit or to demonstrate their ability to perform at the college level. There are no prerequisites, such as age or educational status, for taking CLEP examinations.However, because policies on granting credits vary among colleges, you should contact the particular institution from which you wish to receive CLEP credit.Who administers the exam?
CLEP exams are developed by the College Board, administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS), and involve the assistance of educators from throughout the United States. The test development process is designed and implemented to ensure that the content and difficulty level of the test are appropriate.When and where is the exam given?
CLEP exams are administered year-round at more than 1,200 test centers in the United States and can be arranged for candidates abroad on request. To find the test center nearest you and to register for the exam, contact the CLEP Program:CLEP Services
P.O. Box 6600
Princeton, NJ 08541-6600
Phone: (800) 257-9558 (8 a.m. to 6 p.m. ET)
Fax: (609) 771-7088
Website: www.collegeboard.org/clepOPTIONS FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL AND VETERANS
CLEP exams are available free of charge to eligible military personnel and eligible civilian employees. All the CLEP exams are available at test centers on college campuses and military bases. Contact your Educational Services Officer or Navy College Education Specialist for more information. Visit the DANTES or College Board websites for details about CLEP opportunities for military personnel.Eligible U.S. veterans can claim reimbursement for CLEP exams and administration fees pursuant to provisions of the Veterans Benefits Improvement Act of 2004. For details on eligibility and submitting a claim for reimbursement, visit the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs website at www.gibill.va.gov/pamphlets/testing.htm.CLEP can be used in conjunction with the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which applies to veterans returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan theaters of operation. Because the GI Bill provides tuition for up to 36 months, earning college credits with CLEP exams expedites academic progress and degree completion within the funded timeframe.SSD ACCOMMODATIONS FOR CANDIDATES WITH DISABILITIES
Many test candidates qualify for extra time to take the CLEP exams, but you must make these arrangements in advance. For information, contact:College Board Services for Students with Disabilities
P.O. Box 6226
Princeton, NJ 08541-6226
Phone: (609) 771-7137 (Monday through Friday, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. ET)
TTY: (609) 882-4118
Fax: (609) 771-7944
Table of Contents
About the Author vii
About Research & Education Association vii
Chapter 1 Passing the CLEP Introductory Psychology 1
Getting Started 3
The REA Study Center 4
An Overview of the Exam 5
All About the CLEP Program 6
Options for Military Personnel and Veterans 7
SSD Accommodations for Candidates with Disabilities 7
6-Week Study Plan 8
Test-Taking Tips 8
The Day of the Exam 10
Online Diagnostic Test: rea.com/studycenter
Chapter 2 History and Methods 11
Psychology's History 13
Modern Approaches to Understanding Human Behavior 14
Research Methods 15
Chapter 3 Biological Bases of Behavior 19
Sub-Systems of the Nervous System 23
Brain Organization 25
Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception 27
Chapter 5 Consciousness 33
Patterns of Waking and Sleeping 35
Sleep Disorders 37
Altered States of Consciousness 38
Chapter 6 Learning 39
Non-Associative Learning 41
Associative Learning 42
Chapter 7 Cognition 47
Chapter 8 Motivation and Emotion 53
Chapter 9 Development 59
Developmental Research Methods 61
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development 62
Erikson's Theory of Psycho-Social Development 64
Chapter 10 Personality 67
The Psychoanalytic Approach 69
The Humanistic Approach 72
The Social-Cognitive Approach 72
The Individual Difference (or Trait) Approach 73
Chapter 11 Psychological Disorders 75
Anxiety Disorders 77
Mood Disorders 78
Dissociative Disorders 78
Somatoform Disorders 79
Personality Disorders 80
Explanations for Abnormal Behavior 80
Chapter 12 Psychological Therapies 81
The Psychoanalytic Approach 83
The Humanistic Approach 84
The Cognitive Approach 85
The Learning (or Behavioral) Approach 85
The Biological (or Medical) Approach 86
Chapter 13 Social Psychology 89
Social Cognition 91
Social Influence 92
Social Relations - Aggression and Altruism 93
Chapter 14 Testing, Measurement, and Statistics 95
Reliability, Validity, and Standardization 97
Descriptive Statistics and Statistical Inference 98
Practice Test 1 (also available online at rea.com/studycenter) 101
Answer Key 127
Detailed Explanations of Answers 128
Practice Test 2 (also available online at rea.com/studycenter) 139
Answer Key 165
Detailed Explanations of Answers 166
Answer Sheets 179