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DRAWING DRAPERY from HEAD to TOE
By CLIFF YOUNG
Dover Publications, Inc.Copyright © 2007 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
FROM CLOTH ...
Drapery is cloth. You must know what cloth is. Cloth is made of threads woven together as shown in the illustration to the left. The threads may be of wool, cotton, silk, etc.
The length-wise threads, as shown in red, are called the WARP. The threads which are woven back and forth by the shuttle in the making of fabrics are known as the WOOF. These are the black threads shown in the illustrations to the left.
When cloth is torn the threads of the WARP or the WOOF are broken. See the illustration to the left. It is impossible to tear cloth diagonally. When a change in direction occurs in a tear, it is always at right angles to the WARP or WOOF.
If it is necessary to have cloth of irregular shapes, the cloth must be cut to shape with a pair of scissors. The illustration above shows a paper pattern laid on cloth as a guide to cutting. These facts are known to all, but it is well to recall them to mind in order that you may know the nature of the material with which clothing is made.
... TO CLOTHES
This figure is clothed in cylinders. A cylinder covers each arm—another covers the body and legs. The cylinders shown cover, but do not fit the figure.
Compare this diagram with your own clothes. Your sleeves are cylindrical—also the body of your jacket, coat, or shirt. Trousers and skirts carry out this cylindrical scheme.
Clothes are simply pieces of cloth sewn together to make a covering for the nude figure. Study the force of gravity (downward pull) on one piece of cloth under many conditions. By doing this you may better understand the cause of the folds which seem to give so much trouble when drawing the clothed figure.
If you will take a piece of cloth a yard square and make various drawing of it, as shown by the drawings on the following pages, you will learn the cause and formation of folds which add interest to an otherwise plain piece of material.
DRAPERY IN ACTION
A CLOTH LAID FLAT ON THE FLOOR AND PULLED FROM ONE CORNER WILL CAUSE FOLDS TO RADIATE FROM THIS POINT OF PULL.
WHEN THE CLOTH IS PULLED AT TWO CORNERS AT THE SAME TIME FOLDS WILL RADIATE FROM BOTH POINTS OF PULL. TRY IT AND SEE.
THE INFLUENCE OF ...
THIS CLOTH HANGING ON THE WALL FROM TWO CORNERS HAS FOLDS RADIATING FROM EACH POINT OF PULL (TACK WHICH SUPPORTS CLOTH). GRAVITY, EXERTING A DOWNWARD PULL ON THE ENTIRE CLOTH, SEEMS TO INCREASE THE 'PULL' AT EACH UPPER CORNER.
THIS IS THE SAME CLOTH SEEN FROM THE SIDE
THIS TIME THE TACKS SUPPORTING THE CLOTH HAVE BEEN MOVED TOWARD THE CENTER. GRAVITY PULLS THE CLOTH LOWER AND INCREASES THE 'PULL' FROM THE SUPPORTED CORNERS. PIN UP A PIECE OF CLOTH. STUDY AND DRAW IT.
NOTICE HOW DEEP THE FOLDS ARE NOW.
GRAVITY ON DRAPERY
THE TACK TO THE LEFT HAS BEEN LOWERED. THE FOLDS TO THE RIGHT HAVE INCREASED IN SIZE AND NUMBERS. IF THE LEFT CORNER OF THE CLOTH WAS LOWERED STILL MORE THE FOLDS TO THE RIGHT WOULD INCREASE MORE AND MORE. TRY IT AND SEE FOR YOURSELF. THE FORCE OF GRAVITY IS EVERYWHERE TRYING TO PULL DOWN THE CLOTH FROM THE WALL ...
CLOTHES ARE BASICALLY A SERIES OF CLOTH CYLINDERS WHICH COVER THE FIGURE. A STUDY OF THE CRUSHED AND TWISTED CYLINDER IS VERY IMPORTANT. IN THE ILLUSTRATION AT THE TOP OF THIS PAGE THE CYLINDER OF CLOTH HAS BEEN CRUSHED TOGETHER WITH THE HANDS. THE FOLDS ARE RING-LIKE IN CHARACTER. LOOK FOR SUCH RING FOLDS IN SLEEVES, TROUSERS, STOCKINGS, ETC.
THE CLOTH CYLINDER SHOWN TO THE LEFT HAS BEEN TWISTED. THE FOLDS FOLLOW THE DIRECTION OF THE TWIST AS SHOWN BY THE ARROWS. THESE FOLDS DESCRIBE ACTION.
NOTE RADIATION OF FOLDS FROM ELBOW IN BOTH PHOTO AND DRAWING
SLEEVE CUT FROM AN OLD SHIRT PULLED OVER A BENT CARD-BOARD TUBE. PLACED IN SIMILAR POSITION TO ARM IN PHOTO.
NOTICE SLEEVE CRUSHED INTO 4 DISTINCT "RING FOLDS". . PULLING FROM ELBOW
CLOTHES MAKE THE MAN
MEN'S UNDER GARMENTS ARE SIMPLE. THE SHIRT(A) IS KNITTED AND FITS TIGHT TO THE BODY. THE SHORTS (B) ARE MADE OF A LIGHT WEIGHT MATERIAL AND ARE CUT FULL ENOUGH TO PERMIT FREE MOVEMENT OF THE LEGS.
...... AND THE WOMAN
THERE IS MUCH VARIETY IN THE STYLE OF WOMEN'S CLOTHING. THE 'BRASSIERE' (A), A COVERING AND PROTECTION FOR THE BREASTS, AND THE 'PANTIES' (B), ARE WORN NEXT TO THE SKIN. FOUNDATION GARMENTS OVER WHICH THE OTHER ARTICLES OF CLOTHING ARE WORN. MAILORDER CATALOGS AND ADVERTISING PHOTOS IN MAGAZINES ARE A GOOD SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THE MANY STYLES OF CLOTHING ...
THE SLIP IS AN UNDER DRESS WITHOUT SLEEVES. WORN UNDER THE OUTER DRESS OR SUIT. IT IS HELD IN PLACE BY STRAPS OVER THE SHOULDERS
THE GOWN AND NIGHT SHIRT IS A NIGHT DRESS. THE PAJAMA IS A TWO PIECE GARMENT. A SLEEPING SUIT. . SEE FASHION MAGAZINES AND CATALOGS FOR STYLES....
THE SHIRT, THE FIRST OF THE OUTER GARMENTS, COVERS THE UPPER PART OF THE BODY. THE SHIRT TAIL IS USUALLY COVERED BY THE TROUSERS OR SKIRT. THE SHIRT HANGS LOOSE FROM THE SHOULDERS. IT IS DRAWN (CRUSHED) IN AT THE WAIST BY THE BELT (TOP OF TROUSERS OR SKIRT). FOLDS CAUSED BY THE BELT CRUSHING THE LOOSE SHIRT ARE SIMILAR TO THE ONES PRODUCED BY THE STRING TIED TIGHTLY AROUND A PAPER CYLINDER (A)
THE BLOUSE SHOWN ON PAGE 19 IS A SHIRT WORN BY WOMEN, THERE IS GREATVARIETY IN STYLE OF SLEEVES AND COLLARS. ALSO THE SHIRT TAIL IS SHORT. LOOK ABOUT YOU. NOTICE STYLE.
'A' SHOWS GARMENT EXTENDED TO ITS GREATEST WIDTH. NOTICE SHAPE OF ARM HOLE 'A' (GARMENT 'EXPLODED', PULLED APART, TO SHOW CONSTRUCTION) ALSO SHAPE OF UPPER LIMIT OF SLEEVE 'a'.
COMPARE WITH 'B' AND 'b' SHOWING FULLNESS UNDER ARM CRUSHED TOGETHER AGAINST SIDE OF THE FIGURE AND ARM.
ANY MOVEMENT, HOWEVER SLIGHT, CAUSE FOLDS IN THE GARMENTS WORN. IN COMPLICATED ACTIONS, WATCH THE FOLDS, THEY EXPLAIN THE ACTION OF THE FIGURE UNDERNEATH. DO ANALYSIS DRAWINGS OF ACTION PHOTOS. DRAW TO LEARN.
HERE ARE A FEW OF THE POPULAR TYPES OF KNITTED SWEATERS.
THE JACKET IS WORN OVER THE SHIRT, AND COMES IN ONLY TWO TYPES, SINGLE AND DOUBLE BREASTED. THE LEFT SIDE OF THE JACKET ALWAYS OVERLAPS THE RIGHT IN BUTTONING. THIS IS TRUE OF ALL MEN'S CLOTHING THE OVER COAT IS WORN OVER ALL OTHER CLOTHES.
THERE IS MUCH MORE VARIETY IN THE STYLE OF WOMEN'S JACKETS. COLLARS, LAPELS, SLEEVES AND THE LENGTH CHANGE CONSTANTLY. MAKE ANALYSIS DRAWINGS FROM PHOTOS IN FASHION MAGAZINES TO LEARN THE SMART AND NEW STYLES. COMPARE YOUR DRAWINGS WITH THE SIMPLE JACKET SHOWN ABOVE.
CONSTRUCTION OF JACKET
DIFFERENCES IN FOLDS-SHIRT-COAT
EACH TROUSER LEG IS A TAPERING CLOTH CYLINDER ... WHICH HAS BEEN CREASED DOWN THE CENTER IN FRONT AND BACK. THEY COVER THE FIGURE FROM WAIST LINE TO HEEL. ON THE STANDING FIGURE THEY FALL FREE FROM THE BUTTOCKS IN THE BACK, THE HIPS AT THE SIDE, AND FROM THE CENTER OF THE THIGH, OPPOSITE THE BUTTOCKS, IN FRONT.
THE SKIRT IS A CONE OF CLOTH THAT FALLS FREE FROM THE FIGURE AT THE BUTTOCKS, HIPS AND THIGHS THE SAME AS TROUSERS. SKIRT STYLES CHANGE FREQUENTLY SO IT IS NECESSARY TO FOLLOW THE FASHION MAGAZINES FOR STYLE TRENDS.
GLOVES FOR MEN
GLOVES FOR WOMEN
SHOES: FOR MEN
BE SURE THAT THE SHOES THAT YOU DRAW APPEAR TO REST FIRMLY ON THE GROUND.
SHOES: FOR WOMEN
HATS AND CAPS
DIAGRAM ABOVE SHOWING NORMAL POSITION OF A HAT ON THE HEAD. NOTICE HAT IS WORN SLOPING BACK AS SHOWN (A-A)
DIAGRAM ABOVE SHOWING NORMAL POSITION OF A CAP ON THE HEAD. NOTICE CAP COVERS MORE OF THE HEAD THAN THE HAT. (SEE B-B)
MAKING USE OF PHOTOGRAPHS TO STUDY DRAPERY OF CLOTHES
The thousands of photos found in newspapers and magazines are all for your use to assist you in your study of drapery.
The plan which I followed is—
STEP ONE: —Tear a photograph of a clothed figure out of a magazine or newspaper.
STEP TWO: —Make a simple but accurate drawing of the figure with a colored pencil. It is advisable to keep this drawing in simple solids, making sure that the cylindrical forms are shown in their correct relation in space—that is, to show that they are coming forward or going back, raised or lowered, as may be indicated by your photograph.
STEP THREE: —Then, with black pencil, draw in the clothes, paying particular attention to the direction of the folds caused by action of the figure.
Since these drawings are made to increase your knowledge of clothing and drapery—do them as accurately as possible.
Remember, you are not trying to improve or correct the photograph—you are simply making studies to gather more and more knowledge of drapery and the appearance of clothing on figures in action. You always go to nature (either drawing direct from the model or from photos) for knowledge and you then study the work of artists to understand how knowledge may be designed, or in other words—used most effectively. It might be helpful to analyze the clothed figures in magazine illustrations to see how the artist used the knowledge of drapery in designing the folds of the clothes to make the action of the figure attractive and easy to understand.
NOTICE THE FOLDS OF THE SKIRT FALLING OVER THE UPPER LEG (PRIMARY SURFACE OF SUPPORT) TO THE LOWER LEG (SECONDARY SURFACE OF SUPPORT) AND FROM THERE TO THE FLOOR.
THE PHOTO, SHOWN BELOW, WAS THE MODEL FROM WHICH WAS MADE. MAKE DRAWING FROM PHOTOS THAT YOU WILL FIND EVERY DAY IN NEWS PAPERS AND MAGAZINES.
TROUSERS HANG FREE FROM THE LEG FROM POINT X, SEE ABOVE.
THE CREASE OF TROUSERS FALLS IN A SIMILAR MANNER TO THE STRING OF A PLUMB LINE WITH THE WEIGHT RESTING ON THE GROUND, (A) (B) THE WEIGHT (PLUMB BOB) SUSPENDED ABOVE THE GROUND. GRAVITY PULLS THE STRING STRAIGHT DOWN
NOTICE THAT THE FOLDS BREAK' TO DEFINE THE TOP, SIDE, AND BACK SURFACES OF THE FIGURE. SEE THE DIAGRAM BELOW
THE SURFACE OF SUPPORT IS DIAGONALLY OPPOSITE THE POINT OF PULL (ORIGIN OF FOLDS).
MAKE A GREAT MANY ANALYSIS DRAWINGS OF CLOTHES SHOWN IN PHOTOGRAPHS. NEWS PHOTOS (ACTION SHOTS) ARE FUN TO STUDY AND INCREASE YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF DRAPERY IN ACTION. STUDY THE WORK OF FAMOUS ARTISTS. MAKE ANALYSIS DRAWINGS OF THE FIGURES FOUND IN THEIR PICTURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. NOTICE HOW THEY DESIGN AND SIMPLIFY FOLDS ...
NOTICE THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLDS OF THE JACKET ...
1 FOLDS RADIATE FROM SEAM AT BACK OF SLEEVE.
2 FOLDS STARTING AT THE ARMHOLE RADIATE DOWN AND BACK.
3 RADIATION FROM BUTTONS.
THE SURFACES OF SUPPORT ARE. .
A THE FRONT SURFACE OF THE UPPER ARM.
B THE BACK.
C THE FRONT SURFACE OF THE UPPER LEG-.
IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO MAKE TOO MANY ANALYSES OF THIS KIND. LEARN BY DRAWING.
NOTICE THE PULL FROM THE SEAM OF THE ARM-HOLE TO THE HIGHEST PART OF THE BACK.
NOTICE THE DRAPE OF THE TROUSERS, FALLING FREE OF THE LEGS FROM THE BUTTOCKS.
NOTICE THE WRINKLED APPEARANCE OF THE BACK OF THE SKIRT. THE MATERIAL OF THE SKIRT IS HEAVY ENOUGH TO RESIST THE FORCE OF GRAVITY WHICH IS TRYING TO PULL THE MATERIAL DOWN.
TO MAKE YOUR DRAWING MORE SIMPLE AND ATTRACTIVE DRAW ONLY THOSE FOLDS THAT DESCRIBE THE ACTION OF THE FIGURE. SEE DIAGRAM A.
Excerpted from DRAWING DRAPERY from HEAD to TOE by CLIFF YOUNG. Copyright © 2007 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
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