Werner Herzog's 2011 film Cave of Forgotten Dreams, about the painted caves at Chauvet, France brought a glimpse of Europe's extraordinary prehistory to a popular audience. But paleolithic cave paintings, stunning as they are, form just a part of a story that begins with the arrival of the first humans to Europe 1.3 million years ago, and culminates in the achievements of Greece and Rome. In Europe before Rome, T. Douglas Price takes readers on a guided tour through dozens of the most important prehistoric sites on the continent, from very recent discoveries to some of the most famous and puzzling places in the world, like Chauvet, Stonehenge, and Knossos. This volume focuses on more than 60 sites, organized chronologically according to their archaeological time period and accompanied by 200 illustrations, including numerous color photographs, maps, and drawings. Our understanding of prehistoric European archaeology has been almost completely rewritten in the last 25 years with a series of major findings from virtually every time period, such as Ötzi the Iceman, the discoveries at Atapuerca, and evidence of a much earlier eruption at Mt. Vesuvius. Many of the sites explored in the book offer the earliest European evidence we have of the typical features of human society--tool making, hunting, cooking, burial practices, agriculture, and warfare. Introductory prologues to each chapter provide context for the wider changes in human behavior and society in the time period, while the author's concluding remarks offer expert reflections on the enduring significance of these places. Tracing the evolution of human society in Europe across more than a million years, Europe before Rome gives readers a vivid portrait of life for prehistoric man and woman.
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Table of ContentsPreface Chapter 1. Frameworks for Europe's Past Geography and Environment Geology Raw Materials Past Climates Time and Chronology A Very Short History of European Archaeology Chapter 2. The First Europeans Early Europeans Atapuerca, Spain, 1,300,000 year ago Boxgrove, England, UK, 500,000 years ago Schöningen, Germany, 400,000 years ago Neanderthals Krapina, Croatia,130,000 years ago Salzgitter-Lebenstedt, Germany, 55,000 years ago El Sidrón, Spain, 43,000 years ago Grotte du Renne, France, 40,000 years ago Vindija Cave, Croatia, 34,000 years ago Ancient DNA Neanderthal Diet Some Reflections Chapter 3. The Creative Explosion Origin and Spread of Modern Humans The Upper Paleolithic Pestera cu Oase, Romania, 40,000 years ago Grotte Chauvet, France, 32,000 years ago Grande Grotte, France, 32,000 years ago Dolní V?stonice, Czech Republic, 27,500 years ago Grotte de la Vache, France, 14,000 years ago Gönnersdorf, Germany, 11,500 years ago Pincevent, France, 12,000 years ago Doggerland, North Sea, 11,000 BC The Last Hunters Franchthi Cave, Greece, 9000 BC Mount Sandel, Ireland, 7000 BC Moita do Sebastaio, Portugal, 6000 BC Polderveg, Netherlands, 5500 BC Tybrind Vig, Denmark, 5000 BC Vedbæk, Denmark, 5000 BC Rock Art: Vingen, Norway, 5000 BC Some Reflections Chapter 4. The First Farmers The Origins and Spread of Agriculture Shillourokambos, Cyprus, 8200 BC Nea Nikomedeia, Greece, 6200 BC Lepenski Vir, Serbia, 6200 BC Vinca, Serbia, 5500 BC Rudna Glava, Serbia, 5000 BC Varna, Bulgaria, 4500 BC Passo di Corvo, Italy, 6000 BC Linearbandkeramik Vaihingen, Germany, 5300 BC Polished Flint Axes Spiennes, Belgium, 4400 BC La Draga, Spain, 5000 BCArbon Bleich, Switzerland, 3384 BC Ötzi, Italy, 3300 BC The Megaliths of Western Europe Skara Brae, Orkney Islands, UK, 3200 BC Stonehenge, UK, 3100 BC Newgrange, Ireland, 3100 BC Los Millares, Spain, 3200 BC Hal Saflieni, Malta, 3600 BC Rock Art: Barranco de la Valtort, Spain, 5500 BC Some Reflections Chapter 5. Bronze Age Warriors The Rise of Metals The Bronze Age in the Aegean Knossos, Crete, Greece, 3000 BC Akrotiri, Greece, 1627 BC Mykene, Greece, 1600 BC Uluburun, Turkey, 1300 BC The Bronze Age North of the Alps Bell Beaker Amesbury Archer, UK, 2470 BC The Indo-Europeans Croce del Papa, Italy, 2150 BC Poggiomarino, Italy, 1600 BC Nebra, Germany, 1600 BC Bronze Age Finds Sun Chariot, Denmark, 1400 BC Bronze Lurs, Denmark, Sweden, ca. 1000 BC Gold Hats, Germany, ca. 1000 BC Flag Fen, UK, 1350 BC Salcombe, UK, 1000 BC Rock Art: Tanum, Sweden, 1500 BC Some Reflections Chapter 6. Centers of Power, Weapons of Iron At the Edge of History The Celts The Germans The Scythians Making Iron Biskupin, Poland, 738 BC The Etruscans Necropoli della Banditaccia, Italy, 650 BC Hallstatt, Austria, 800 BC Hochdorf, Germany, 530 BC Vix, France 480 BC Danebury, UK, 550 BC Grauballe, Denmark, 300 BC Manching, Germany, 300 BC Gournay-sur-Aronde, France, 280 BC Ribemont-sur-Ancre, France, 260 BC Celtic Religion Maiden Castle, UK, 43 BC Some Reflections An Epilogue. Past and Present - Lessons from Prehistoric Europe Europe before Rome Significance Relevance Preservation Appreciation References Credits Index