The modern apologetics classic that started it all is now completely revised and updated—because the truth of the Bible doesn’t change, but its critics do. With the original Evidence That Demands a Verdict, bestselling author Josh McDowell gave Christian readers the answers they needed to defend their faith against the harshest critics and skeptics. Since that time, Evidence has remained a trusted resource for believers young and old. Bringing historical documentation and the best modern scholarship to bear on the trustworthiness of the Bible and its teachings, this extensive volume has encouraged and strengthened millions. Now, with his son Sean McDowell, Josh McDowell has updated and expanded this classic resource for a new generation. This is a book that invites readers to bring their doubts and doesn’t shy away from the tough questions.
Evidence That Demands a Verdict is the winner of the 2018 Christian Music Award® for Bible Reference Works.
• Thoroughly revised and updated from the previous edition
• Now co-authored by Josh McDowell and Sean McDowell
• All-new chapters defending against the latest attacks from Christianity’s critics
• Designed to be a go-to reference for even the toughest questions
• Offers thoughtful responses to the Bible’s most difficult and extraordinary passages
• Expansive defense of Christianity’s core truths, including the resurrection of Jesus Christ
|Publisher:||Nelson, Thomas, Inc.|
|Product dimensions:||6.40(w) x 9.40(h) x 2.00(d)|
About the Author
As a young man, Josh McDowell considered himself an agnostic. He truly believed that Christianity was worthless. However, when challenged to intellectually examine the claims of Christianity, Josh discovered compelling and overwhelming evidence for the reliability of the Christian faith. After trusting in Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord, Josh’s life changed dramatically as he experienced the power of God’s love. After his conversion, Josh committed his life to telling a doubting world about the truth of Jesus Christ. After studying at Kellogg College, Josh completed his college degree at Wheaton College and then attended Talbot Theological Seminary, graduating magna cum laude with a Masters of Divinity. Working with Campus Crusade for Christ and founding the youth outreach, Josh McDowell Ministry, Josh has shared the gospel with more than 25 million people in 125 countries. He is the author or co-author of 147 books.
Dr. Sean McDowell is a gifted communicator with a passion for equipping the church, especially young people, to make the case for the Christian faith. He connects with audiences through humor and stories while imparting hard evidence and logical support of a biblical worldview. Sean is an assistant professor in Biola University’s Christian Apologetics program and the resident scholar for Summit California. A regular speaker for organizations like Focus on the Family, the Chuck Colson Center for Christian Worldview, and Youth Specialties, among others, Sean is the author, co-author, or editor of over eighteen books and is a frequent guest on radio shows like Family Life Today and Point of View.
Read an Excerpt
THE UNIQUENESS OF THE BIBLE
I. Introduction II. Unique in Character
People often say to us, "Oh, you don't read the Bible, do you?" Or they say, "The Bible is just another book. You really ought to read ..." Then they name some of their favorite books. Others have a Bible in their library, describing how it sits on the shelf next to other "greats," such as Homer's Odyssey, Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, or Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Their Bible may be dusty, not broken in, but they still recognize its historical influence, thinking of it as one of the classics. Still others make degrading comments about the Bible because they are surprised that anyone might take it seriously enough to spend time reading it. I (Josh) was once like them. I even tried to refute the Bible as God's Word to humanity. I finally concluded, however, that not accepting the Bible must result from being either biased, prejudiced, or simply unread.
Voices like those above brought up many issues with which I grappled. As a result of all my research about the Bible, I concluded that the best word to describe the Bible is the word unique.
This chapter focuses exclusively on the unique origin and nature of the Bible, the profound impact it has had on western civilization, and its responsibility for much of the progress of human history. This chapter will not attempt to demonstrate the validity or truth of the Bible, nor its claims to inspiration, infallibility, or inerrancy, which will be addressed in subsequent chapters.
II. Unique in Character
There are several uncommon and distinctive features of the Bible's history, composition, and content. F. F. Bruce, former Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis at the University of Manchester, summarizes these characteristics:
The Bible, at first sight, appears to be a collection of literature — mainly Jewish. If we enquire into the circumstances under which the various Biblical documents were written, we find that they were written at intervals over a space of nearly 1400 years. The writers wrote in various lands, from Italy in the west to Mesopotamia and possibly Persia in the east. The writers themselves were a heterogeneous number of people, not only separated from each other by hundreds of years and hundreds of miles but belonging to the most diverse walks of life. In their ranks we have kings, herdsmen, soldiers, legislators, fishermen, statesmen, courtiers, priests and prophets, a tentmaking rabbi and a Gentile physician, not to speak of others of whom we know nothing apart from the writings they have left us. The writings themselves belong to a great variety of literary types. They include history, law (civil, criminal, ethical, ritual, sanitary), religious poetry, didactic treatises, lyric poetry, parable and allegory, biography, personal correspondence, personal memoirs and diaries, in addition to the distinctively Biblical types of prophecy and apocalyptic. (Bruce, BP, 79)
Now let us look in more detail into some of these specific characteristics.
A. Unique in Its Time Span
While most scholars agree that all the books of the New Testament were completed by the second half of the first century AD (Kitchen, OROT, 500), there is sufficient evidence to confirm that the earliest forms of the Bible were written during the time of the Hebrew exodus out of Egypt (c. 1400–1200 BC). This means that the composition of the biblical writings, from the earliest book of the Bible to the last of the New Testament writings, spans a period of 1,300 to 1,500 years. In comparison to other literary and historical works, the Bible is exceptional in that it was written and assembled over a vast number of generations.
B. Unique in Its Geographical Production
Unlike most other literary works, the composition and transmission of the biblical books did not emerge from a homogenous community located in a single region of the ancient world. Rather, these works were written by peoples in areas as diverse as Rome in the West, Egypt in the South, and Mesopotamia in the East. This amazing geographical and ethnic diversity distinguishes the Bible's origins from that of all other books.
C. Unique in Its Authorship
The Bible is as diverse in its authorship as it is in its production over a long period of time and the multiple geographical regions in which it originated. Authored by approximately forty different people (some known, some unknown) and edited and preserved by countless scribal schools and communities, the Bible preserves for us the writings of a vast array of different personalities from widely divergent social circumstances. We discover kings surrounded by power and wealth (e.g., Solomon) on the one hand, to lower class Galilean fishermen (e.g., Peter and John) on the other. Between these two socioeconomic extremes one finds an exiled prince (Moses), military leaders (e.g., Joshua and David), trained philosophers (e.g., the authors of Job and Ecclesiastes), a tax collector (Matthew), a historian (Luke), and a zealous Pharisee (Paul). These authors recorded the stories of all kinds of people. Professor Mary Ellen Chase remarks:
The story-tellers of the Bible ... understood men and women of all sorts and in all conditions. There is literally no type of person whom they have neglected. All are here: the wise and the foolish, the rich and the poor, the faithful and the treacherous, the designing and the generous, the pitiful and the prosperous, the innocent and the guilty, the spendthrift and the miser, the players of practical jokes and their discomfited victims, the sorry, the tired, the old, the exasperated young, misled and impetuous girls, young men who lusted and young men who loved, friends who counted no cost for friendship, bad-mannered children and children well brought up, a little boy who had a headache in a hay-field, a little servant girl who wanted so much her master's health that she dared to give him good, if unpalatable, advice. Once one discovers such persons as these, still alive after many centuries, they become not only fascinating in themselves but typical of persons whom we know today. (Chase, BCR, 5)
D. Unique in Its Literary Genres
The Bible is also unique in that a multitude of distinct literary forms and genres can be found within its pages, as complete compositions consisting of a single genre (e.g., Song of Songs) or complete compositions imbued with multiple genres (e.g., Exodus). Gerd Theissen, professor of New Testament at the University of Heidelberg, highlights the importance of biblical genres:
Biblical texts are of various sorts. Treatment of one sort of text provides practice in dealing with all texts of the same sort. Narrative, poetic, legal, and argumentative texts of the Bible can therefore be treated as exemplary, as well as the various biblical genres identified by that area of biblical scholarship called form criticism. In principle no single sort of text is privileged. Central themes appear in all forms: creation is recorded as narrative; trust is expressed in prayer (Psalm 23); monotheism is mandated in a commandment (Exod. 20:2); justification is expounded in a disputatious letter (Romans); theodicy — the question of God's justice — is examined in wisdom dialogue (Job). The Bible is not a homogenous text but a compendium of different forms and genres. Each must be appreciated on its own terms. (Theissen, BCC, 30–31)
Other ancient literary works utilize a multiplicity of literary genres, but the biblical authors use them in order to focus their audience's attention on one supreme metanarrative. Alison Jack, professor of Bible and Literature at the University of Edinburgh, illustrates the interplay between this unifying biblical motif and the multiplicity of literary forms:
While one overarching story may be discerned, involving the central character of the one God, creator and sustainer of the earth, and his relationship with those who accept a relationship with him, and those who do not, there are many different voices behind the books of the Bible. A multitude of literary genres are found here, from long and short narratives to poetry and song, genealogies and historical accounts, biography, letters and apocalyptic writing. These voices tell different versions of the story, from a variety of perspectives. (Jack, BL, 6)
E. Unique in Its Languages
The Bible is written in three different languages (two Semitic and one Indo-European), each with a unique character and essence. Larry Walker, former professor of Old Testament and Semitic Languages at Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, outlines each of the biblical languages:
Hebrew is actually one of several Canaanite dialects which included Phoenician, Ugaritic, and Moabite. Other Canaanite dialects (for example, Ammonite) existed but have left insufficient inscriptions for scholarly investigation. Such dialects were already present in the land of Canaan before its conquest by the Israelites. ... Hebrew belongs to the Semitic family of languages; these languages were used from the Mediterranean Sea to the mountains east of the Euphrates River valley, and from Armenia (Turkey) in the north to the southern extremity of the Arabian peninsula. ... Hebrew, like the other early Semitic languages, concentrates on observation more than reflection. That is, things that are generally observed according to their appearance as phenomena, not analyzed as to their inward being or essence. Effects are observed but not traced through a series of causes. Hebrew's vividness, conciseness, and simplicity make the language difficult to translate fully. It is amazingly concise and direct. For example, Psalm 23 contains fifty-five words; most translations require about twice that many to translate it. ... Hebrew is a pictorial language in which the past is not merely described but verbally painted. Not just a landscape is presented but a moving panorama. The course of events is reenacted in the mind's sight. ... Many profound theological expressions of the Old Testament are tightly bound up with Hebrew language and grammar. Even the most sacred name of God himself, "the Lord" (Jehovah or Yahweh), is directly related to the Hebrew verb "to be" (or perhaps "to cause to be"). (Walker, BL, 218–221)
Walker also explains:
Aramaic is linguistically very close to Hebrew and similar in structure. Aramaic texts in the Bible are written in the same script as Hebrew. In contrast to Hebrew, Aramaic uses a larger vocabulary, including many loan words, and a greater variety of connectives. It also contains an elaborate system of tenses, developed through the use of participles with pronouns or with various forms of the verb "to be." Although Aramaic is less euphonious and poetical than Hebrew, it is probably superior as a vehicle of exact expression. Aramaic has perhaps the longest continuous living history of any language known. It was used during the Bible's patriarchal period and is still spoken by a few people today. Aramaic and its cognate, Syriac, evolved into many dialects in different places and periods. Characterized by simplicity, clarity, and precision, it adapted easily to the various needs of everyday life. It could serve equally well as a language for scholars, pupils, lawyers, or merchants. Some have described it as the Semitic equivalent of English. ... Gradually, especially after the Babylonian exile, Aramaic influence pervaded the land of Palestine. Nehemiah complained that children from mixed marriages were unable to speak Hebrew (Neh. 13:24). The Jews seem to have continued using Aramaic widely during the Persian, Greek, and Roman periods. Eventually the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into Aramaic paraphrases, called Targums, some of which have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. ... Aramaic served as a transition from Hebrew to Greek as the language spoken by Jews in Jesus' day. In that sense Aramaic connects Old Testament Hebrew with New Testament Greek. (Walker, BL, 228–230)
The Greek language is beautiful, rich, and harmonious as an instrument of communication. It is a fitting tool both for vigorous thought and for religious devotion. During its classic period, Greek was the language of one of the world's greatest cultures. During that cultural period, language, literature, and art flourished more than war. The Greek mind was preoccupied with ideals of beauty. The Greek language reflected artistry in its philosophical dialogues, its poetry, and its stately orations. The Greek language was also characterized by strength and vigor. It was capable of variety and striking effects. Greek was a language of argument, with a vocabulary and style that could penetrate and clarify phenomena rather than simply tell stories. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great encouraged the spread of Greek language and culture. Regional dialects were largely replaced by "Hellenistic" or "koine" (common) Greek. Koine Greek is a dialect preserved and known through thousands of inscriptions reflecting all aspects of daily life. The koine dialect added many vernacular expressions to Attic Greek, thus making it more cosmopolitan. Simplifying the grammar also better adapted it to a worldwide culture. ... Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek was an epochal event. The Septuagint (the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament) later had a strong influence on Christian thought. ... The New Testament epistles blend the wisdom of Hebrew and the dialectic philosophy of Greek. Sermons recorded in the New Testament combine the Hebrew prophetic message with Greek oratorical force. (Walker, BL, 230–234)
Excerpted from "Evidence that Demands a Verdict"
Copyright © 2017 Josh McDowell Ministry.
Excerpted by permission of Thomas Nelson.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Table of Contents
Revising Evidence That Demands a Verdict, xxi,
He Changed My Life, xxv,
PROLOGUE: A Theistic Universe, lix,
PART I: Evidence for the Bible,
CHAPTER 1: The Uniqueness of the Bible, 3,
CHAPTER 2: How We Got the Bible, 21,
CHAPTER 3: Is the New Testament Historically Reliable?, 41,
CHAPTER 4: Have the Old Testament Manuscripts Been Accurately Transmitted?, 92,
CHAPTER 5: Gnostic Gospels and Other Nonbiblical Texts, 124,
PART II: Evidence for Jesus,
CHAPTER 6: The Historical Existence of Jesus, 143,
CHAPTER 7: The Lofty Claims of Jesus, 172,
CHAPTER 8: The Trilemma: Lord, Liar, Lunatic?, 195,
CHAPTER 9: Old Testament Prophecies Fulfilled in Jesus Christ, 205,
CHAPTER 10: The Resurrection: Hoax or History?, 232,
CHAPTER 11: Is Christianity a Copycat Religion?, 303,
CHAPTER 12: The Deity of Jesus: An Investigation, 316,
CHAPTER 13: The Martyrdom of the Apostles, 360,
PART III: Evidence for the Old Testament,
CHAPTER 14: The Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern Influences, 371,
CHAPTER 15: Biblically Faithful Approaches to Genesis, 403,
CHAPTER 16: Archaeology and the Old Testament, 414,
CHAPTER 17: The Historical Adam, 423,
CHAPTER 18: The Historicity of the Patriarchs, 443,
CHAPTER 19: The Historicity of the Exodus, 459,
CHAPTER 20: The Historicity of the Conquest, 480,
CHAPTER 21: The Historicity of the United Monarchy, 503,
CHAPTER 22: The Historicity of the Divided Monarchy and Exilic Period, 519,
CHAPTER 23: The Composition of the Pentateuch, 529,
CHAPTER 24: The Composition of the Book of Isaiah, 558,
CHAPTER 25: The Historicity of Daniel, 572,
CHAPTER 26: Alleged Contradictions in the Old Testament, 586,
PART IV: Evidence for Truth,
CHAPTER 27: The Nature of Truth, 605,
CHAPTER 28: The Knowability of Truth, 621,
CHAPTER 29: Answering Postmodernism, 635,
CHAPTER 30: Answering Skepticism, 652,
CHAPTER 31: Are Miracles Possible?, 663,
CHAPTER 32: Is History Knowable?, 688,
EPILOGUE: Final Thoughts, 703,
APPENDIX: Responding to the Challenges of Bart Ehrman, 705,
Author Index, 775,
Subject Index, 787,
How to Know God Personally, 795,
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
evidence that demands a verdict is a very special book. the writer was a non believer at first until he went on a search and found the historical evidence that proves that the resurection is a fact not only does the arthur alotthis evidence but he also presents the counter arguments of the skeptics and shows in this book with counter claims with facts why they are wrong this is a very amazing book many people know the scripture but not alot of people know the historical evidence and few people know that there is alot outthere and it is all presented in this easy to read and understand book. great gift idea for a friend or family member or study group
This was book amazing writing and compelling to read with also had been done an incredible of researching that challenged and inspire all of us from the best information to the power relationship and influence in the life living. It was a remarkable book with had all up date all tool will help to guide your conversation as you can shape the mind of a new generation of disciples. I highly recommend to everyone must to read this book. “ I received complimentary a copy of this book from Book Look Bloggers for this review”
I was so happy to have the chance of reviewing this fabulous resource, Evidence That Demands a Verdict by Josh and Shawn McDowell. One, because I own a much older copy which is falling apart from use and because this one has even more faith building truth in it's updated and revised form. I highly recommend this book to every Christian and even any person that may be skeptical of the claims of Christianity but is honestly seeking truth wherever it may lead. Five stars! **This book was given to me in exchange for an honest review by BookLookBloggers. All opinions are mine.**
I first was introduced to this ground breaking new outreach book as a college student. It's launch in 2017 brings back memories. There were not too many publications available addressing issue about the authenticity of the bible. Especially in college, many student' found their faith challenged and the bible the credibility of the bible was questioned within the classroom by professors and outside the classroom by peers. This book was revolutionary in that it gave credibility to the area of apologetics. It armed bible believing Christians with facts as well as the tools needed to defend one's faith. For many college students this book was a lifesaver. This book is an extensive reference book. It would be suitable for an apologetics course as well. This book takes time to read and assimilate the information presented. There is a lot of supportive evidence provided. The book is divided topically so that the reader may skip around rather than read cover to cover. Lastly the gospel message is presented based on vintage bible study tracts. This is important as the authors point out that the message of salvation is more important than simply winning a debate. This book is a must have for anyone who wishes to have the tools needed to defend their faith. Not only that, this book is the perfect outreach opportunity for skeptics providing common sense, factual support in a systematic and comprehensive format, with sufficient detail and evidence to satisfy even the most stead fast opponent. This book is the perfect springboard to share your beliefs with others. This book could not have been published at a better time. If you are a skeptic and find yourself with questions, this will be a lifechanging book. As a blogger I received a copy of this book for the purpose of writing this review.
Who needs this book? The atheist, agnostic, or Non-Christian who is intellectually honest and open. Anyone who is of another faith, but may be curious about Christianity. Every follower of Jesus who take serious the instruction to love God with all our heart, strength…and mind; as well as the mandate given in 2 Peter 3:15. Daniel 12:4 tells us in the last days, there will be an increase in knowledge. The Internet has become the single largest repository of lies, revisionism, deceit, and half or twisted truths, all presented by groups or individuals representing themselves as authorities on virtually every subject imaginable. The only thing required to be an expert on anything is a video-capable smart phone and a YouTube channel. There has never been such an assault on truth as there is today. Feelings, not facts, win allegiance, and sway public opinion. Check the Oxford Dictionaries 2016 International Word of the Year for more on that. To say that this updated version of Evidence That Demands a Verdict is timely is an understatement. Josh and Sean McDowell and their team of scholars have unveiled so much solid evidence…it is staggering. I honestly could write for hours regarding my favorite areas (which appear in every part). The section on Truth is worth double the price of the book. In fact, I’ll hazard that every chapter in every section is worth the price of the entire volume. I have skimmed over some chapters only because my focus went to areas of personal interest, and others where I have been challenged by unbelievers, have already researched, and ever on the lookout for more data. There’s so much here. It really is a gold mine. More information on manuscript evidence. More information on the historicity and archaeology of the Old Testament. And there’s the most pivotal moment in history…the one that we measure time against…The Resurrection. There is even more information for dealing with the Jesus-mythers. These false teachers are destroying and even serving to inoculate many young people against faith in Jesus. Each chapter in “Part 2: The Evidence for Jesus” is so important. This includes separate Chapters for historical evidence for the existence of Jesus, Old Testament prophecies fulfilled by Jesus, dealing with the idea that the resurrection is a hoax, and the belief that Christianity is a copycat religion (I find this one especially diabolical), just to name a few. Others have written great reviews already, and every positive review you read is right on. I can’t speak for those who didn’t get from it what I did. This new edition of Evidence is exactly what those of us are looking for who hunger for more education and solid research, but lack the time and resources to pull it off. If we are to bring unbelievers into a deeper SPIRITUAL understanding of God, and disciple those who are new or young Christians, we MUST be able to effectively answer difficult questions. I will be purchasing this resource in every available format as I am able. This is one that I will carry with me everywhere, study alongside my Bible, listen to, and read repeatedly so that I am doing everything in my power to always be ready to lovingly and humbly provide an answer for the hope that is within me to whomever might ask. I want to buy a copy for everyone I know.
Having read many apologetics books, I can heartily recommend this one as the best defense of the historicity of the Bible I have ever read. As laid out early in the book, this is meant to be a reference book and teaching to embolden and equip Christians with an "apology" for their faith. This book is organized superbly down to each section and subsection so you can always find what you are looking for and has synthesized thousands of resources to layout logically and simply the evidences for historical Christianity. Presented with anecdotes from Josh and Sean's experiences, the book reads easily as you are led to each point of the mountain of evidences tackled in this book. I would highly recommend this book as THE resource on Biblical historicity.
This is a book that I have been waiting for. I remember checking out the prior editions from the library at my local church about ten years ago. This was the beginning of my love for apologetics. Never purchased a copy until this one. I was fortunate enough to be on the book launch team and had an advanced PDF file of this book. As far as resources go this is a good one. The book is an update of the prior editions and has some new information as well. I like how the chapters and sections are organized in this book. I am a bit biased as I have seen both Josh and Sean McDowell and have heard them speak at a few conferences that I have attended. I trust them in the research and arguments that they put forth in the defense of the Christian faith. Whether this book will please everyone or not probably not. There are some that may think is too light biblically speaking but others, like myself will say there is enough material in this book to seek out how to defend your Christian faith. Sean McDowell's dissertation at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary was on what happened to the Apostles. I was looking forward to this particular topic located at (Chapter 13). One good thing about this book is that as far as references go you have a lot of good information to take from this book. I am very glad to have it in my library.
Searching for the truth? Look no further. "Evidence" is thorough and well-researched. Half of the book is new material. Do yourself a favor and get a copy!
Searching for the truth? Look no further. "Evidence" is thorough and well-researched. Half of the book is new material. Do yourself a favor and get a copy!
In the early 1970’s I wore out the first edition of Evidence that Demands a Verdict validating in college what I came to believe as a child. At that time, one’s concept of truth (or “true truth” as one writer called it) was based on what was logically sound and how it squared with reality and the physically observable universe. However, today the focus is no longer on demonstrable truth, but on how a claim allegedly makes the listener feel; intolerance and bigotry are the objections commonly raised when the gospel message is presented. This fourth edition contains much, if not all, of the first edition but there is much new material: the first-hand account of one of the authors tells of the power of a changed life because of taking God at His word and honestly acting upon it. He shares his life story with great honesty, candidness and vulnerability. Additional documentation is provided regarding more recent archaeological findings and the historical evidence for Old Testament characters and events. The final six chapters address the nature and validity of truth as well as answers to objections by postmodernists and skeptics. The fourth edition of Evidence that Demands a Verdict will prove to be a valuable resource for the Christian as well as the honest seeker of the truth of the claims of the person and work of Jesus the Christ.