Iran and Turkey: International and Regional Engagement in the Middle East

Iran and Turkey: International and Regional Engagement in the Middle East

by Marianna Charountaki

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781788311809
Publisher: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd
Publication date: 05/30/2018
Series: Library of International Relations , #87
Pages: 320
Product dimensions: 5.40(w) x 8.50(h) x (d)

About the Author

Marianna Charountaki is a Lecturer in Kurdish Politics and International Relations in the School of History, Politics and International Relations at the University of Leicester, where she is also the Head of the Kurdistan International Studies Unit. Her research interests range from international relations and foreign policy analysis to the international relations of the broader Middle East. She has published the monograph The Kurds and US Foreign Policy: International Relations in the Middle East since 1945 (2010) as well as articles in the journals Journal of American Foreign Policy Interests, Third World Quarterly and Journal of Arabian Studies.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations ix

Preface x

Acknowledgements xii

List of Abbreviations xiii

1 Introduction 1

Introduction 1

Literature Review: A Critique 5

Determinants of Turkish-Iranian Relations: A Justification 9

Driving forces of Turkish-Iranian foreign policies 10

Principles influencing foreign policy 15

Factors shaping foreign policy practice 16

Methodology: An Interdisciplinary and Comparative Examination from a Multi-actor Perspective 26

Conclusion 28

2 Determinants of Iranian -Turkish Relations: A Historical Review 31

Introduction 31

Sunni Ottoman Empire versus Shiite Persian Safavids: Structural parameters 34

The Role of the Elites: Army and Ulama versus Army and Ayatollahs 37

Turkish versus Iranian Republicanism: International Interference as an External Force 39

The Influence of the Cold War on Turkish-Iranian Politics 44

Iran and Turkey in the 1950s and 1970s 44

Islamist Turkey versus Islamic Iran: The Impact of Foreign Policy Principles 48

The National Interest: A generator of stability 49

Laicism versus Islamism 51

Hegemony versus dominance 52

Conclusion 52

3 Turkey-Iran Relations during the Cold War 55

Introduction 55

The Iranian Revolution and its Impact on the Cold War 60

Non-state Actors as Facilitator of State Foreign Policy 74

The role of Hizbullah and the PKK factor 74

The Kurds of Iraq: A key determinant 76

Iraq as Factor under the Prism of Gulf War I 80

External Interference: The US Role versus Soviet Influence 84

Economics of War: Iranian-Turkish Economic and Political Alliances 88

The shifting balance of power 88

Conclusion 90

4 Turkish-Iranian Relations in the 1990s: The Impact of Gulf War II and the Consolidation of the Kurdish Status 95

Introduction 95

The Impact of Gulf War II on Turkish-Iranian Relations 100

The role of the leadership as reflected in foreign policy discourse and practice 100

Hie role of Iraq: External mediation and direct use of force 103

Dimensions of political economy 111

KRG and PKK: Determinants of foreign policy 113

Gulf War II and its Aftermath: The Role of the Kurds 120

Conclusion 124

5 The Iraq War and the Rise of Non-state Actors (2001-2010) 128

Introduction 128

The Role of Iraq in the Formulation of Turkish-Iranian Relations: Political and Economic Considerations 133

Non-state Actors in Iranian and Turkish Foreign Policies: The Kurds as a Force for Change 141

The Iranian versus the Turkish Model 148

Energy politics 148

Foreign policy and security 151

Iranian-Turkish Rapprochement: International and Regional Structures 158

Epilogue: Towards a Conceptual Analysis 159

Conclusion 164

6 Turkish-Iranian Relations under the Lens of the Syrian Crisis: A New Era for Middle Eastern Politics 167

Introduction 167

The Syrian Factor 174

The role of external interference in the Syrian crisis 179

The Army: A continuous institutional power 190

Kurdistan between Iran and Turkey: Implications of the War on Islamic State 192

Energy politics: The Kurds - a bridge between Iran and Turkey 201

The Kurdish role in the Iranian and Turkish responses to the Syrian crisis 204

Conclusion 207

7 Conclusions and Conceptualisations 213

Introduction 213

Empirical and Conceptual Implications 217

A New Pattern of Alliances: The International Dimension 225

The Kurds: A determinant in regional restructuring 225

A changing balance of power: Instruments of transformation 229

Sunni-Shia conflict A clash of interests 231

Economic parameters 233

Theoretical Framework: A Model of Multi-dimensional Interrelations 234

Conclusion 239

Appendix KCK Structure 244

Notes 247

Bibliography 307

Index 339

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