Libya: From Colony to Revolution

Libya: From Colony to Revolution

by Ronald Bruce St John

Paperback(Revised)

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Overview

Since Qaddafi's ousting in 2011, Libya has been beset by instability and conflict. To understand the tumultuous state of the country today, one must look to its past. With great clarity and precision, renowned regional expert Ronald Bruce St John examines Libya's long struggle to establish its political and economic identity amidst the interference of external actors keen to exploit the country's strategic importance.

This authoritative history spans the time of the early Greek settlements, colonization by Mussolini's Italy, Qaddafi's four decades of rule and the internal rivalries that have dominated the country in the aftermath of the Arab Spring and the colonel's ousting. Essential reading for those seeking a greater understanding of this complex North African state, Libya: From Colony to Revolution is an insightful history, which is rich in detail and analysis.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781786072405
Publisher: Oneworld Publications
Publication date: 01/09/2018
Edition description: Revised
Pages: 432
Product dimensions: 5.10(w) x 7.80(h) x (d)

About the Author

Ronald Bruce St John is a respected expert who has appeared on ABC News and in The New York Times, Washington Post and National Geographic. He has been studying Libya for more than 30 years.

Table of Contents

Preface to Third Edition xi

Preface to Second Edition xiii

Preface to First Edition XV

Maps and Illustrations xvii

Note on Transliteration xviii

Select Chronology of Libyan History xix

1 Early History 1

Historical Setting 2

Phoenician Settlements in Tripolitania 4

Greek Influence in Cyrenaica 6

Roman Influence in Libya 13

Arab Invasions 18

Fatimids (910-1171) 21

Hilalian Invasion 23

Almoravids, Almohads, and Hafsids in Tripolitania 25

Medieval Cyrenaica and Fezzan 27

Lasting Impressions 28

2 Ottoman Occupation, 1551-1911 29

First Ottoman Occupation (1551-1711) 30

Karamanli Dynasty (1711-1835) 34

Barbary Wars 38

Second Ottoman Occupation (1835-1911) 43

Sanusi Order 47

Foreign Schemes and Initiatives 50

Young Turk Revolution 52

Transformation 54

3 Italian Colonial Era, 1911-43 56

Misplaced Optimism 57

Early Resistance and Collaboration 61

Nascent Political Movements 65

Tripoli Republic, 1918-22 67

Riconquista, 1923-32 71

Italian Colonial Policy 74

Jewish Community 78

Impact of Italian Occupation 80

4 Struggle for Independence, 1943-51 84

Liberation and Occupation 85

Wartime Discussions 87

Great Power Gridlock 90

Regional and Domestic Politics Collide 92

American Strategic Interests 96

United Nations Decides 98

Arab Nationalism, Aid, and Base Rights 102

Conflicting Interests 105

5 United Kingdom of Libya, 1951-69 109

Socioeconomic Inheritance 110

Palace System of Power 111

Alliance Politics 115

Western Dependence 119

Impact of Oil 121

National Identity 125

Rise of Arab Nationalism 126

Monarchy in Perspective 130

The End 132

6 One September Revolution, 1969-73 133

Young Revolutionaries 135

Great Power Denouement 139

Primacy of Oil 145

Socioeconomic Change 148

Freedom, Nationalism, and Unity 150

Popular Revolution 153

Third Universal Theory 157

7 Revolution on the Move, 1973-86 160

The Green Book 161

Direct Popular Authority 165

Rush to Socialism 171

Hydrocarbon Policy 174

Confrontation with the West 177

Arab Disunity 182

Third Circle 184

Declining Influence Abroad 188

Confined to the Libyan Playhouse 191

8 Consolidation and Reform, 1986-98 193

Revolution within the Revolution 194

Great Green Charter on Human Rights in the Era of the Masses 197

Weapons of Mass Destruction 201

Lockerbie 205

European Relations 207

Status Quo in Africa 212

Turn to the Maghrib 216

Rule of International Law 218

Mounting Opposition 221

9 Libya Resurgent, 1998-2007 225

Out of Africa 226

Looking East and West 233

European Relations 237

War on Terror 242

Economic Reform 246

Hydrocarbons, the Exception 250

Social Conditions 254

Political Developments 257

Qaddafi's Libya 259

10 A New Day Dawns, 2008-11 262

Socioeconomic Reform 263

Political Reform 266

Human Rights 268

Africa 270

Europe 273

United States 276

Arab Spring 278

February 17 Revolution 282

Military Events 284

Political Developments 289

End of the Beginning 293

11 Post-Qaddafi Libya 299

General National Congress Elections 301

Islamists Ascendant 305

Constitutional Drafting Process 308

Descent into Chaos 310

Libyan Political Agreement 314

Time for a Reset 319

Europe 323

United States 328

Arab World 330

Africa 334

Who Lost Libya? 335

Further Reading 337

Notes 354

Index 365

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