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|Publisher:||University of Alaska Press|
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About the Author
David Ramseur is a visiting scholar in public policy at the University of Alaska Anchorage’s Institute of Social and Economic Research. He served as press secretary, communications director, chief of staff, and foreign policy advisor to Alaska Governors Steve Cowper and Tony Knowles and to Anchorage Mayor and US Senator Mark Begich. Ramseur has visited the Soviet Union and Russia more than a dozen times starting with the Alaska Airlines’ “Friendship Flight” in 1988.
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Melting the Ice Curtain
The Extraordinary Story of Citizen Diplomacy on the Russia-Alaska Frontier
By David Ramseur
UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA PRESSCopyright © 2017 David Ramseur
All rights reserved.
A Call to Arms
I believe that in the future, whoever holds Alaska will hold the world. I think it is the most important strategic place in the world.
— US ARMY GEN. BILLY MITCHELL, 1935
Five days after President John F. Kennedy stunned America into fearing that nuclear war was closer than ever because of Soviet missiles in Cuba, a U-2 spy plane quietly lifted off from an obscure airfield outside Fairbanks, Alaska. It was dark and well below freezing at Eielson Air Force Base just after midnight on October 27, 1962. More than 4,100 miles away in Washington, DC, the atmosphere could not have been more heated.
At the height of Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, American surveillance planes detected medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba, just ninety miles off Florida's coast. The sixty-seven-foot-long missiles could turn the Eastern Seaboard into smoking rubble in just thirteen minutes.
On October 22, Kennedy reported the chilling discovery in a dramatic Oval Office address to the nation. He demanded that the country that Americans feared most — the Soviet Union — remove the missiles, and he imposed a quarantine on ships destined for the communistled Caribbean island in hopes of preventing their launch.
For veteran Air Force Captain Charles Maultsby, his flight that night in faraway Alaska was routine. The Soviet Union had been conducting nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya, an island off Siberia about one thousand miles south of the North Pole. As part of "Project Star Dust," Maultsby's mission was to fly his spy plane, nicknamed "Dragon Lady," to the pole and collect air samples on special filter paper to detect radioactivity. Most missions came back clean. Of forty-two already flown that month from Eielson, only six found radioactive material.
The elite flyer, a combination pilot and astronaut, preferred more action. Before this assignment, Maultsby had flown aerial acrobatics with the Air Force's famed Thunderbirds. After being shot down over North Korea during the Korean War, he had survived six hundred days as a prisoner of war.
As the nation steeled itself for war, the thin-mustached captain settled into the one-man cockpit for what he knew would be an eight-hour flight. He had prepared himself for the coming seventy-thousand-foot altitude by inhaling pure oxygen for several hours to rid his body of as much nitrogen as possible to guard against the bends. At just five foot seven and 150 pounds, Maultsby was a perfect fit in the cramped cockpit. To build an aircraft capable of flying fourteen miles high, U-2 designers eliminated weight wherever possible, starting with the fuselage. Most of the plane was wing surface, eighty feet from tip to tip.
As Maultsby's U-2 neared the North Pole, he knew his compass would become useless, the needle automatically pointing downward toward the earth's magnetic field. So he reverted to standard operating procedure: the celestial navigation method of fifteenth-century explorers, reading the stars. But in the late fall at that latitude, the sky was filled with dancing bright lights — the aurora borealis, or northern lights. Maultsby was prepared with a stack of celestial charts, but each time he tried to fix on a guiding star such as Vega or Polaris, the northern star, the shimmering aurora made it difficult to tell one from another.
After collecting samples over what he thought was the pole, Maultsby executed the standard maneuver for reversing course: turn left for 90 degrees and then reverse the turn for 270 degrees. He headed back for what he assumed was home base.
The regular practice for returning U-2 pilots was to rendezvous with a US air-rescue plane near Barter Island off Alaska's northern coast. The intercept aircraft, dubbed "Duck Butt," had promised to "leave a light on in the window."
Maultsby could see nothing but darkness from horizon to horizon. Concerned with the whereabouts of the U-2, the Duck Butt pilot radioed that he would fire flares every five minutes for Maultsby to follow. Nothing but black sky for the captain as radio transmissions from Alaska grew weaker. Finally, Maultsby picked up the faint signal of a local radio station: balalaika music and chatter in Russian. The captain was dangerously miles off course.
When Maultsby entered Soviet air space west of Wrangell Island off the Chukchi Sea, Soviet MiG fighters scrambled from two air bases in the Chukotka region, just across the Bering Strait from Alaska. Their orders: intercept and shoot down the intruder. Maultsby yelled, "Mayday, Mayday," over his emergency channel as he maneuvered his plane eastward.
By radar from nearly one thousand miles away at a Galena air station west of Fairbanks, interceptors tracked Maultsby's location. Because of the Cuban missile crisis, F-102 Delta Dagger intercept jets stationed there had been upgraded earlier in the week. When the squadron was elevated to DEFCON 3, their conventional weapons had been replaced with nuclear-tipped Falcon air-to-air missiles. Just one of the nuclear warheads could destroy everything within a half-mile radius. Using such weapons certainly would invite reciprocation from the Soviets. Two of the nuclear-equipped F-102s with distinctive red tails received immediate orders: intercept the Soviet MiGs and escort Maultsby home.
In the nation's capital, meanwhile, America's top leaders monitored the Cuban missile crisis around the clock. Shortly before two p.m. that Saturday, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara was conferring with the Joint Chiefs of Staff when he was passed a message: a U-2 spy plane was lost off Alaska. It had taken the Strategic Air Command (SAC) ninety minutes to report the missing plane to Washington. With Soviet and American armed forces on the highest alert across the globe, now this — McNamara was not happy.
THE PRESIDENT HAD just finished a swim in the White House pool to relax his back and was headed to the residence for a quick lunch when his defense secretary called with the troubling news. Conferring with his national-security aides, President Kennedy broke their tension over the missing U-2 when he laughed, "There's always some sonofabitch who doesn't get the word." McNamara canceled air-sampling missions worldwide, calling back another sampling plane already in the air.
As the Soviet MiGs screamed toward him, Maultsby maintained his altitude. Their supersonic engines made the fighters much quicker than the U-2, but they could only climb to about sixty thousand feet, leaving them ten thousand feet short of their target. Maultsby thought of fellow U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers, who two years earlier was shot down over Siberia, harshly interrogated, and imprisoned for twenty-one months before being released in a prisoner exchange. The Powers incident had been a huge black eye for the United States and a domestic public-relations coup for Nikita Khrushchev. The implications of the downing of another American spy plane at the height of the Cuban missile crisis was unthinkable.
Already airborne for more than nine hours, Maultsby soon faced another complication: running out of fuel. With a light airframe and long wings, U-2s were capable of gliding on wind currents for up to two hundred miles without power. To save his remaining twelve minutes of fuel for an emergency, Maultsby reluctantly switched off the plane's single engine and battery power, isolating himself fourteen miles above the Soviet mainland without radio contact.
Still hundreds of miles inside the Soviet Union, Maultsby glided silently across the black sky. Below him, the MiGs tracked the U-2 for about three hundred miles before being forced to peel off in search of fuel. They were replaced by MiGs from Chukotka's capital city of Anadyr, which followed him across the Chukotka Peninsula. The SAC operations center 3,500 miles away in Nebraska tracked the cat-and-mouse intercepts. Finally, a glow of dawn on the horizon reassured Maultsby he was headed the right way, east to Alaska.
Maultsby continued to glide east as he slowly descended to twenty-five thousand feet. Suddenly, two fighter jets with red tails appeared off his wings. Maultsby switched his radio back on to hear an American voice: "Welcome home."
At the recommendation of the F-102 pilots, Maultsby backtracked about twenty miles to the closest landing spot, a snow-covered airstrip near Kotzebue on Alaska's northwest coast. Coming in too quickly for the short strip, Maultsby killed his engine, lowered his flaps, and deployed a parachute out the rear of the plane to slow his speed. The U-2 skidded along the icy runway and burrowed into deep snow.
Once the plane came to a stop, Maultsby remained transfixed in the cockpit, his legs numb, unable to climb out. What he later described as a "bearded giant" in a government-issue parka lifted the captain out by his armpits and set himdown in the snow. The first order of business: he shuffled to a snowbank to relieve himself. Maultsby's ten-hour-and-twenty-five-minute flight was the longest ever recorded for a U-2.
The following day, after a thirteen-day standoff in which the world came closer than ever to nuclear annihilation, Soviet leader Khrushchev agreed to dismantle Soviet missiles in Cuba. In a message to President Kennedy, Khrushchev noted that the Alaska U-2 flight easily could have been mistaken "for a nuclear bomber, which might push us to a fateful step."
TWO DECADES BEFORE Captain Maultsby's harrowing flight over the Soviet Union, US-Soviet relations had plummeted to another low. The ink was barely dry on the pre–World War II diplomatic exchange allowing regulated visits by American and Soviet Natives across the Bering Strait when US paranoia grew over Soviet intentions in the region.
In 1940, Anthony Dimond, Alaska's territorial delegate to congress, alarmed his constituents when he announced that the Soviet Union was settling "thousands of Russians, supposedly colonists" on Soviet Big Diomede Island, just two and a half miles from Alaska's Little Diomede. The settlers were reported to be of the "younger generation" who were "carried away with the idea that they are to be the glorious conquerors of the world and they must sow the seeds of revolution."
Their first mission: "get their hands on Alaska which so idiotically was sold to capitalist America by the Czarist government." Within a few months, the crew of the US Coast Guard Cutter Perseus confirmed Soviet construction of an airplane hangar on Big Diomede. Alaska Natives also reported observing Soviet submarines berthed around Big Diomede's shoreline.
Americans saw the moves as part of broader Soviet muscle flexing in the region. "Simultaneously a string of nearly a dozen 'Soviet bases of culture,' which include army and navy contingents, have been established in this region, fortresses have been built, coast defense guns have been mounted, submarine bases are being built, airfields have been completed, and all foreigners are rigorously excluded from the whole area," reported the New York Times.
The newspaper's sources said the Soviets recently had deemed the Commander Islands (where Bering died two hundred years earlier) restricted to Soviet military personnel, "although German naval officers continue to visit there with great frequency, which deepens the suspicion that a German submarine base is being prepared there."
Just a year later, Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union dramatically altered attitudes across the strait as suspicion gave way to international cooperation. Within weeks of the German aggression, President Roosevelt pledged all possible help to the Soviet people. He dispatched veteran Soviet observer and businessman Averill Harriman to Moscow to devise an American-British assistance program for the Soviets.
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin unconditionally rejected Harriman's idea to deliver US aircraft flown by American crews through Alaska to Siberia. He reportedly was nervous about provoking Japan. As the war raged, Stalin dispatched his key foreign-affairs advisor, Vyacheslav Molotov, to Washington to hammer out a deal for additional American aid. Arriving in such a hostile country for the first time, Molotov packed sausages, Russian black bread, and a pistol for survival.
The Soviets continued to resist the Alaska–Siberia route for warplanes, fearing the weather, unprepared Siberian cities, and an unwanted American presence in the Far East. However, with Soviet losses mounting, in June 1942 Stalin finally agreed to a Lend-Lease plan. Two months later, the first Soviet envoys arrived in Nome to implement the scheme.
2The proposal called for flying aircraft from Great Falls, Montana, through the Canadian cities of Edmonton, Alberta, and Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, to Alaska airfields in Fairbanks and Galena. A major new airfield was constructed in Nome, the last stopping point before Siberia. US pilots flew the planes to Alaska then handed them off to Soviet pilots. The Soviet airmen were specially selected for their loyalty to the motherland and were housed in separate quarters from the Americans. Most of the Russian interpreters were uniformed Soviet women required to pass security clearances.
Cold weather, poor maintenance, aircraft overload, and liquor consumption by the Soviet pilots took a modest toll on the operation. Of the 7,983 planes delivered to the Soviets between September 1942 and September 1945 on the Alaska route, only about 1.6 percent were lost to weather or pilot error.
Though deemed helpful to the Allied war victory, Lend-Lease was subject to conspiracy theories. Rumors abounded of uranium, gold bars, and American banknotes being smuggled to the Soviet Union in US aircraft. After the war, the Soviets minimized the program's importance to the war effort, arguing that American aid represented only 4 percent of overall Soviet production during the war.
Later, some Westerners received Soviet recognition for their contributions to the war effort but Lend-Lease participants did not. A generation after the war, Soviet leader Khrushchev charged that "American monopolists made billions of dollars on war deliveries" and "fattened themselves on the blood of the people lost during two world wars."
Six months after the war's end, in March 1946, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill joined President Harry Truman in Truman's home state of Missouri to receive an honorary college degree. Churchill used the occasion to deliver what became known as the "Iron Curtain speech," which ominously altered the way the West viewed the Soviet Union. The speech was broadly considered to be the onset of the Cold War, which triggered a massive military buildup to block Soviet aggression around the world, including the Bering Strait region.
A few months after Churchill's speech, an incident soured relations between Alaska and the Soviet Far East. In July 1946, twenty-six Little Diomede Natives sailed their walrus-hide boats to Big Diomede for a friendly visit. Landing on the island's north shore, they were met by uniformed Soviet soldiers, including both Russian and Native troops. At gunpoint, the Alaskans were herded to tents on a rocky plateau and held for fifty-two days. They were interrogated about US military activities and fed saltwater soup once a day. One Alaskan died in captivity.
After their release, Alaska Natives were reluctant to venture across the date line, even to follow pods of whales or walrus. The Soviets soon exiled their country's Natives from Big Diomede to the Soviet mainland, further distancing them from their Alaska relatives. In their place, a border guard surveillance post was established on the island to monitor incursions across the strait.
Those incidents and increased Cold War tension elsewhere prompted an internal debate within the US government. On March 22, 1948, FBI director J. Edgar Hoover issued a memo concluding that US national-security concerns should outweigh the interests of local Alaska Natives. This cast a dark shadow on the ten-year-old agreement with the Soviets that had permitted relatively free exchange of Alaska and Soviet Natives. On May 29, 1948, the Soviet government concurred with Hoover, pronouncing the original 1938 agreement "invalid." A Cold War Ice Curtain across the Bering Strait indefinitely sealed the border between the US and USSR, banning all contact.
Alaska's economy had benefited enormously from World War II, and the Cold War kept federal dollars flowing. Fearful of invasions by both Germany and Japan, the federal government spent millions of dollars in the territory to construct numerous military bases and build the Alaska Highway, the only surface link with the Lower 48. Thanks to the influx of wartime military personnel, Alaska's population jumped by double digits.
In 1940, the first year of the war, only about 75,000 Alaskans lived in the territory; that increased to nearly 140,000 in just ten years, with 18 percent of the population associated with the military. After the war, Alaska was spared an economic depression by a new military buildup for the Cold War.
Excerpted from Melting the Ice Curtain by David Ramseur. Copyright © 2017 David Ramseur. Excerpted by permission of UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA PRESS.
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Table of Contents
Author's Note ix
1 A Call to Arms 11
2 Extending Hands of Friendship 21
3 A Juneau Peacenik in the Kremlin 31
4 Swimming Against the Current 41
5 Historic Flight Approved 49
6 Friendship Flight to Tomorrow 61
7 Dramatic Reversal 69
8 Soviets Return the Favor 77
9 Breaking the Ice 85
10 Adventure Diplomacy Across the Strait 89
11 Deception on Diomede 99
12 From Uelen to Vladivostok 111
13 Visa-Free Reunification 125
14 Golden Samovar Service 133
15 Open for Business 145
16 Beyond the Coup 157
17 University of Alaska Teaches Capitalism 101 167
18 Oil in Sakhalin, Flush Toilets in Chukotka 175
19 The Thrill Is Gone 185
20 Mercy Mission to Magadan 193
21 Always Keep Talking 201
22 Detained in the Bering Strait 209
23 A Special Alaska-Russia Affinity 227
Select Bibliography 275
About the Author 307