Metal-Dielectric Interfaces in Gigascale Electronics: Thermal and Electrical Stability

Metal-Dielectric Interfaces in Gigascale Electronics: Thermal and Electrical Stability

by Ming He, Toh-Ming Lu


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461418115
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 12/01/2011
Series: Springer Series in Materials Science , #157
Edition description: 2012
Pages: 149
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Metal-dielectric interfaces in IC chips
1.2 Materials choices
1.3 Thermal and electrical stability
2. Metal-Dielectric Diffusion Processes: Fundamentals
2.1 Thermal diffusion
2.2 Field-enhanced ion drift
2.3 Thermodynamics and chemical interactions
2.4 Summary
3. Experimental Techniques
3.1 Test structures
3.2 Electrical measurements
3.3 Elemental characterizations
3.4 Summary
4. Al-Dielectric Interfaces
4.1 Al-SiO2 interface
4.2 Al/low-k dielectric interfaces
4.3 Chemical identification of Al-ion drift
4.4 SiO2 as a dielectric barrier against Al-ion drift
4.5 Summary
5. Cu-Dielectric Interfaces
5.1 Stability of Cu-SiO2 in an oxygen-free environment
5.2 Instability of Cu-SiO2 in an oxygen-containing environment
5.3 Origin of Cu ions in SiO2
5.4 Cu ion diffusivity inside SiO2
5.5 Cu ions in porous low-k dielectrics
5.6 Pre-cleaning of Cu/low-k dielectrics
5.7 Cu atoms in porous low-k dielectrics
5.8 Dielectrics containing no oxygen
5.9 Summary
6. Barrier Metal-Dielectric Interfaces
6.1 Barrier metals on SiO2
6.2 Barrier metals on low-k dielectrics7. Self-Forming Barriers
7.1 General considerations
7.2 Cu(Al) self-forming barrier
7.3 Cu(Mg) self-forming barrier
7.4. Cu(Mn) self-forming barrier
7.5 Refractory metal self-forming barrier alloys
7.6 Summary
8. Kinetics of Ion Drift
8.1 Ion distribution simulations
8.2 Leakage current
8.3 C-V characteristics
8.4 Summary
9. Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) and Future Directions9.1 Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB)
9.2 Dielectric pore-sealing
9.3 Resistance-switching memory
9.4 Summary

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