NOOK Book(eBook)

$16.99 $29.99 Save 43% Current price is $16.99, Original price is $29.99. You Save 43%.
View All Available Formats & Editions

Available on Compatible NOOK Devices and the free NOOK Apps.
WANT A NOOK?  Explore Now
LEND ME® See Details

Overview

The Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament (EGGNT) closes the gap between the Greek text and the available lexical and grammatical tools, providing all the necessary information for greater understanding of the text. The series makes interpreting any given New Testament book easier, especially for those who are hard pressed for time but want to preach or teach with accuracy and authority.

Each volume begins with a brief introduction to the particular New Testament book, a basic outline, and a list of recommended commentaries. The body is devoted to paragraph-by-paragraph exegesis of the Greek text and includes homiletical helps and suggestions for further study. A comprehensive exegetical outline of the New Testament book completes each EGGNT volume.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781433691683
Publisher: B&H Publishing Group
Publication date: 05/01/2017
Series: Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 464
File size: 4 MB
Age Range: 3 Months to 18 Years

About the Author


John D. Harvey is Dean and Professor of New Testament at Columbia Biblical Seminary of Columbia International University in Columbia, SC.

 

Read an Excerpt

Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament: Romans


By John D. Harvey

B&H Publishing Group

Copyright © 2017 John D. Harvey
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-4336-9168-3


CHAPTER 1

Letter Opening (1:1–17)


A. SALUTATION (1:1–7)

STRUCTURE

The salutation follows the normal letter pattern of "A (writer) to B (recipient), greeting." Paul expands the writer section (1:1–6) considerably, most likely because he had neither planted the church nor visited it. He uses that section to introduce both himself and the gospel he proclaims. The recipient (1:7a) and the greeting (1:7b) sections are comparable to those in Paul's other letters.


VERSE 1

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

On [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], see Longenecker (48–50). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (nom. sg. masc. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], ?,"slave") stands in apposition to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] — as do [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] — and is best understood in the positive sense of one subject to a superior, especially God (BDAG 260b). Paul also introduces himself as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] in Philippians and Titus; the term suggests total ownership and obedience. The genitive phrase [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] modifies [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and is possessive ("belonging to") as well as objective ("one who serves"). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] occurs fifteen times elsewhere in Romans (cf. thirteen times for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and thirty-six times for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) and is best understood as a title, "Messiah Jesus" (Longenecker 52–53). Despite comparatively weak manuscript support ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], B, 81), UBS gives the reading a {B} rating (cf. Metzger 446), which agrees with Paul's tendency to prefer [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (85 times) over [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (25 times). Among others, the LXX describes Moses (2 Kgs 18:12; Rev 15:3), Joshua (Josh 24:29), and David (Ps 35:1) as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] designates "God's gracious call to life and salvation, which is always at the same time a call to faith, obedience, service" (Cranfield 51). Dunn (and most EVV) understand [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] as "called to be an apostle" (8); Porter suggests "a called apostle" (84). God issues the divine summons (1 Cor 1:1; Gal 1:15; 2 Tim 1:9). Paul uses [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] with three nuances: (1) a messenger sent on a specific task (Phil 2:25), (2) a commissioned missionary (Rom 16:7), and (3) one of the Twelve called directly by Christ (1 Cor 15:7). Here, Paul aligns himself with the third group as one who saw the risen Christ (cf. 1 Cor 9:1–2), received his commission directly from Christ (cf. Gal 1:1), and had his ministry validated by the signs and wonders of an apostle (cf. 2 Cor 12:12). "Apostle" is the most common self-designation in Paul's salutations (1 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 1:1; Gal 1:1; Eph 1:1; Col 1:1; 1 Tim 1:1; 2 Tim 1:1).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The substantival participle [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (nom. sg. masc. of pf. pass. ptc. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "set apart") further explains [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] as "one who has been set apart" (divine pass.) for the work to which he was called (Gal 1:15; cf. Acts 13:2). In the LXX, God set apart both the Levites and Israel for special service (Num 8:11; Lev 20:26). The specific purpose ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]+ acc.) for which Paul has been set apart relates to the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (acc. sg. neut. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "gospel") that originates with (gen. of source) and is about (obj. gen.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (Schreiner 37). Cranfield suggests that [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] includes both the message of the good news and the activity of preaching that message (54 n. 2). Prepositional phrases commonly omit the article when the object is sufficiently definite (cf. BDF §255).


VERSE 2

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The relative clause introduced by [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (acc. sg. neut. of rel. pron. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) further describes [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. The prefix [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and the indirect middle make [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (3 sg. aor. mid. indic. of dep. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "promise from the beginning") doubly emphatic ("he himself promised ahead of time"); the only other NT occurrence is in 2 Corinthians 9:5. The agents ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + gen.) God used to "pre-promise" the gospel were [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] ("his prophets"). The article points to the prophets as a class (generic); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is possessive ("belonging to") as well as subjective ("sent by"). These prophets are the OT writers, because the means ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + dat.) by which the promise was recorded is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] ("the holy Scriptures"). This verse is Paul's only use of the full phrase, although [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (dat. pl. fem. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "writing") occurs elsewhere (Rom 15:5; 16:26; 1 Cor 15:3, 4). The absence of the art. might be qualitative (Murray 4) or, more likely, continues the style of 1:1 (Cranfield 56 n. 8).


VERSE 3

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The gospel concerns ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + gen.) God's Son. The article identifies the Son as one-of-a-kind (monadic); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is anaphoric, referring back to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (1:1). Paul calls Jesus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] 17 times, using various modifiers; "his Son" (Rom 1:3, 9; 5:10; 8:29; 1 Cor 1:9; Gal 1:16; 4:4, 6; Col 1:13) and "his own Son" (Rom 8:3, 32) are the most common. The focus is on the close relationship between God and Jesus (Dunn 11). See 1:4 on the title "Son of God."

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The adjectival participle [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. masc. of aor. mid. ptc. of dep. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "be, exist, come into being") modifies [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. The repetition of the article is common with the attributive participle (cf. R 778) and places emphasis on it (cf. BDF §270). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is more general than [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] ("to give birth") and highlights the state of being rather than the event of giving birth (Dunn 12). In one respect ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + acc.), Jesus's origin was human, with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (acc. sg. fem. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "flesh") indicating human lineage (cf. Rom. 4:1; 9:3, 5, 8; 11:14), not human nature that is hostile to God (cf. Rom 8:4, 5, 12, 13). Specifically, he was a descendant ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (indecl. gen.) and, therefore, in the messianic line (2 Sam 7:12–16; cf. John 7:42). Longenecker notes that the connection between Christ and David is rare in Paul's letters (65).


VERSE 4

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The participle [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. masc. of aor. pass. ptc. Of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "appoint, determine") is parallel to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and, therefore, adjectival. Elsewhere in the NT, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] consistently means "to appoint, determine" (Luke 22:22; Acts 2:23; 10:42; 11:29; 17:26, 31; Heb 4:7). The anarthrous phrase [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] ("Son of God") is monadic. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is a predicate genitive, and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is a genitive of relationship. Paul uses the full title "Son of God" four other times (2 Cor 1:19; Gal 2:20; Eph 4:13; 1 Thess 1:10). Jewett designates it a royal title and proposes that both [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] are derived from the royal decree language of Psalm 2:7 (104).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Although Jewett links [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] as instrumental (107), most other commentators link it to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (Cranfield 62; Dunn 14; Longenecker 69; Schreiner 42). Cranfield notes that elsewhere in the NT the phrase has the sense "invested with power" (62); Dunn suggests "in executive authority" (14). The preposition [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] designates state/condition and could be translated "clothed with" (cf. BDAG 327b); the absence of the article makes [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (dat. sg. fem. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "power") qualitative. The noun itself carries the sense of might that works wonders (BDAG 262d) and is also used to describe Jesus's earthly ministry (Acts 10:38). When the prepositional phrase is linked with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], it highlights the power inherent in Jesus's enthronement as messianic king.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The parallel between this phrase and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (1:3) has been understood as a contrast between Jesus's human and divine natures, a contrast between Jesus's outward qualifications and inward perfection, or a contrast between Jesus's preresurrection (physical) and postresurrection (spiritual) modes of existence. Each of these interpretations sees [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (acc. sg. neut. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "spirit") as referring to Jesus's personal spirit, with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. fem. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], -[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "holiness") attributing that quality to his spirit (e.g., Longenecker 72–75, "his spirit of holiness"). Since [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is a literal translation of the Hebrew ruach qodesh (MT, Ps 51:13; Isa 63:10–11), however, it should be understood as a reference to the Holy Spirit (cf. Cranfield 62–64). When taken with the preceding phrase's reference to power and the following phrase's reference to the resurrection, therefore, the contrast is between Jesus's humiliation in taking on "flesh" and his exaltation as the one with all power who sends the Holy Spirit.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Having previously referred to Jesus's human birth (1:3), Paul now refers to his resurrection. (Note the parallel with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + genitive marks temporal sequence (Schreiner 44; cf. BDAG 297d) and may be translated "at the time of." Even without the article, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. fem. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "resurrection") is definite (cf. Longenecker 76). The genitive [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] indicates separation — "out of, from among dead ones" — and is comparable to the more common [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (cf. Rom 4:24; 6:4, 9; 7:4; 8:11; 10:7, 9). Jesus's resurrection inaugurates his exaltation and marks the key turning point in salvation history.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. masc.) is in apposition to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (1:3) and frames the extended description of Jesus. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. masc. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "lord") is in apposition to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and serves as the concluding title in Paul's list. The article identifies Jesus Christ as the only [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] worthy of consideration (par excellence). The personal pronoun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] denotes those who are subject to Jesus (gen. of subord.). LXX regularly translates the divine name using [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (TDNT 3.1058–59). Paul calls Jesus [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] 200+ times and incorporates it into the longer title frequently, using both the word order here (cf. 5:21; 7:25) and different word order (e.g., 6:23; 8:39). Cranfield says it "designates the glorified Christ, the incarnate Son of God, placed close to the Father and at the right hand of His majesty, to whom His believers render adoring worship" (65).


VERSE 5

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Christ (antecedent of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], gen. sg. masc. of rel. pron. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) is also the agent ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + gen.) "through whom" Paul received his role as an apostle. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (1 pl. aor. act. ind. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "receive") is an epistolary aorist and refers to Paul alone (cf. Rom 3:8–9; 1 Cor 9:11; 2 Cor 1:12; 1 Thess 3:1–2); the aorist tense is constative and refers to the event as a whole. Schreiner translates the compound direct object [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] as "gracious apostleship" to reflect the hendiadys (33; cf. BDF §442.16). A parallel construction in Romans 15:15 suggests "grace given in order to become an apostle" (cf. Jewett 109). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is the office of an apostle/special emissary (BDAG 121d); it is also a "ministry" (cf. Acts 1:25). See 1:7 for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The purpose ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + acc.) for which Christ placed Paul in the office of apostle relates to "the obedience of faith" (elsewhere only in Rom 16:26). Cranfield lists seven possible interpretations of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (66). Most commentators lean toward a combination of genitive functions for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (gen. sg. fem. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "faith"). A "plenary genitive" (both subj. gen. and obj. gen.) understanding might be best: "obedience to the call of faith (the gospel) that results in a lifestyle of faithful obedience" (cf. Wallace 119–21). The ambiguity honors both Jewish (obedience) and Gentile (faith) concerns in Rome (Jewett 110). By repeating the same phrase in 16:26, Paul creates an inclusio that frames the letter (Longenecker 82).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The sphere ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + dat.) of Paul's ministry is "among all the Gentiles." [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (dat. pl. neut. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "all") highlights universal scope; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] points to the class (generic) of non-Jewish groups within Rome and the empire (Jewett 111); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (dat. pl. neut. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "nation, people") occurs twenty-nine times in Romans and is best translated "Gentiles" (cf. Rom 11:13; Gal 1:16; 2:8). Paul ministers "for the sake of" ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] + gen.) Jesus's name, which Dunn equates with his "reputation" (18) and Cranfield equates with his "glory" (67). Paul's perspective is a reminder that all ministry has God's glory as its focus.


VERSE 6

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

The relative pronoun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (dat. pl. neut. of rel. pron. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]) refers back to the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] "among whom" the readers are included. Most commentators see an indication that the Roman church is predominantly Gentile (e.g., Schreiner 36; contra Cranfield 68). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] (2 pl. pres. act. indic. of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], "be") is a simple equative; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] is adjunctive ("also," cf. R 1180); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] ("you") adds emphasis. See 1:1 for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. The genitive [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] denotes possession ("belonging to Jesus Christ") rather than source "because God the Father always issues a divine call" (Longenecker 83; contra Cranfield 68). The expressed agent who calls is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]. Cranfield notes that this verse is parenthetic but allows Paul to remind the Roman church that they are also within the scope of his apostolic ministry (67).


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament: Romans by John D. Harvey. Copyright © 2017 John D. Harvey. Excerpted by permission of B&H Publishing Group.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents


Introduction

Analysis of Greek Text of Romans

Exegetical Outline

Grammar Index

Scripture Index

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews