An essential resource presenting state-of-the-art theory and process of project management, The AMA Handbook of Project Management has long been considered the authoritative guide.
Managing complex projects can stretch you to the limits. But with a book full of experts coaching you each step of the way, you’ll never be baffled, blocked, or misdirected again.
Packed with essays and insights from the field's top professionals, The AMA Handbook of Project Management is the resource professionals and students rely on for its practical guidance and big picture overview of the entire field: scheduling and budgeting, engaging stakeholders, measuring performance, managing multiple projects, resolving conflicts, using agile practices, and more.
Whether you need advice keeping projects on track or help preparing for certification, this new edition explains every principle, process, and development. Revised to reflect the latest changes to A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®), the fifth editionincludes new information on how to:
- Close the strategy-implementation gap
- Tap the power of digital transformation
- Navigate M&A environments
- Revise your methods for nonprofit settings
- Keep pace with your evolving role
- And more
Packed with models, case studies, and in-depth solutions, this trusted guide helps you master the discipline, overcome obstacles, and fast track your projects and career.
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About the Author
Paul C. Dinsmore, PMP (Dallas, TX, and Rio de Janeiro) is an international authority on project management and organizational change. He has been honored with PMI’s Distinguished Contributions Award, and is a Fellow of the Institute.
Jeannette Cabanis-Brewin (Cullowhee, NC) is editor-in-chief for PM Solutions Research and is a recipient of PMI’s Distinguished Contributions Award.
Read an Excerpt
What Is Project Management?
Project Management Concepts and Methodologies
Joan Knutson, PMP Francis M. Webster Jr., PhD
What do Wall Street and Main Street have in common? Both measure success relative to speed, quality, and teamwork. Growing behemoths and smaller emerging concerns tout project management as a vehicle to success. They use project management to plan and manage enterprise initiatives that generate revenue or contain costs. Those who compete to sell products or services use project management to differentiate themselves by creating a product of higher quality than that of their competitors and getting it to market sooner.
Project management is recognized as a necessary discipline within corporations and governmental agencies. The planning, organizing, and tracking of projects are recognized as core competencies by for-profit and nonprofit organizations of any size.
Projects are mini-enterprises, and each project is a crucial microcosm of any business or organization. You may not be an entrepreneur, but as a project manager you are an "intrapreneur." Think about it: projects consume money and create benefits. Consider the percentage of your organization's dollars that are invested in projects, and the amount of your organization's bottom line generated through projects.
PROJECTS: THE WORK
Pharmaceuticals, aerospace, construction, and information technology are industries that operate on a project basis, and all are notable for developments that have changed the way we live and work. But not all projects are of such magnitude. A community fundraising or political campaign, the development of a new product, creating an advertising program, and training the sales and support staff to service a product effectively are also projects. Indeed, it is probable that most executives spend more of their time planning and monitoring changes in their organizations — that is, projects — than they do in maintaining the status quo.
All of these descriptions focus on a few key notions. Projects involve change — the creation of something new or different — and they have a beginning and an ending. Indeed, these are the characteristics of a project that are embodied in the definition of project found in A Guide to the Project Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide, sixth edition) published by the Project Management Institute (PMI): A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. 1 This definition, although useful to project managers, may not be sufficient to distinguish projects from other undertakings. Understanding some of the characteristics of projects and comparing projects to other types of undertakings may give a clearer perspective.
Some Characteristics of Projects
* Projects are unique undertakings that result in a single unit of output. The installation of an entertainment center by a homeowner, with the help of a few friends, is a project. The objective is to complete the installation and enjoy the product of the effort. It is a unique undertaking because the homeowner is not likely to repeat this process frequently.
* Projects are composed of interdependent activities. Projects are made up of activities. Consistent with the definition of a project, an activity has a beginning and an end. Activities are interrelated in one of three possible ways. In some situations, one activity must be completed before another can begin. Generally, these mandatory relationships are difficult to violate, or to do so just does not make sense. The relationship of other activities is not as obvious or as restrictive. These more discretionary interdependencies are based on the preferences of the people developing the plan. Some activities are dependent on some external event, such as receiving the materials from the vendor. In any of these three instances, mandatory, discretionary, or external, activities have a relationship one to another.
* Projects create a quality deliverable. Each project creates its own deliverable(s), which must meet standards of performance criteria. That is, each deliverable from every project must be quality controlled. If the deliverable does not meet its quantifiable quality criteria, that project cannot be considered complete.
* Projects involve multiple resources, both human and nonhuman, which require close coordination. Generally there are a variety of resources, each with its own unique technologies, skills, and traits. This aspect, in human resources, leads to an inherent characteristic of projects: conflict. There is conflict among resources as to their concepts, approaches, theories, techniques, and so on. In addition, there is conflict for resources as to quantity, timing, and specific assignments. Thus, a project manager must be skilled in managing such conflicts.
* Projects are not synonymous with the products of the project. For some people, the word project refers to the planning and controlling of the effort. For others, it means the unique activities required to create the product of the project. This is not a trivial distinction, as both entities have characteristics specific to themselves. The names of some of these characteristics apply to both. For example, the life cycle cost of a product includes the cost of creating it (a project), the cost of operating it (not a project), the cost of major repairs or refurbishing (typically done as new projects), and the cost of dismantling it (often a project, if done at all). The project cost of creating the product is generally a relatively small proportion of the life cycle cost of the product.
* Projects are driven by competing constraints. These competing constraints represent a balance of scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, and risks, among other factors. One of these constraints is the driving or gating factor of each project. Different projects may be driven by a different constraint, depending on the emphasis established by management. Being first in the market often determines long-term market position, thus creating time pressure as the major driver. Most projects require the investment of considerable money and labor before the benefits of the resulting product can be enjoyed. Thus, containing resource expenditures may be the driving factor. A need exists for the resulting product of the project to be of the highest quality, as, for example, with a new system within the healthcare industry.
In summary, projects consist of activities, which have interrelationships among one another, produce quality-approved deliverables, and involve multiple resources. Projects are not synonymous with products. During the life cycle of any product, the concept of project management is used, whereas, at other times, product or operations management is appropriate. Finally, how projects are managed is determined by which of the competing project constraints is the driving force.
A Crucial Factor That Influences Project Work
As one of the characteristics above stated, the work to create the product (the development life cycle) and the work to manage the project that creates the product are different. However, a project life cycle often integrates work efforts to accomplish both. A development life cycle defines the activities to create the product. While the project life cycle not only consists of the development life cycle but also designates other activities to plan and control work being performed to create the product. The work efforts related to creating the product might be Design It, Build It, Quality Assure It, and Ship It, whereas the processes to manage the project might be Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing.
The activities to create the product are specific to the industry and to the product being created. In other words, the pharmaceutical product life cycle is very different from the software development life cycle. Yet the other activities to plan and control work being performed could be used to organize and monitor either the pharmaceutical or the software product creation.
Different Approaches to Conducting a Project Life Cycle
There are two different approaches to implementing a project life cycle. The traditional approach is called the Predictive life cycle. With more emphasis on faster release of the product, Adaptive life cycles need to be considered. Adaptive life cycles are agile, iterative, or incremental.
* Predictive. A form of project life cycle in which the project scope, time, and cost are determined in the early phases of the life cycle. Traditionally, the product life cycle is decomposed into phases or stages, such as the example above. Each phase is performed, completed, and approved during a Phase Review effort, and then the next phase begins. This technique is called the predictive, or waterfall, life cycle. The planning and controlling works in sync with the product life cycle. Each phase of the product life cycle (for example, the design phase) would be planned, executed, controlled, and possibly closed out before the build phase begins. In other words, the work efforts to produce the product would be performed serially and only once. The efforts to project-manage would be repeated for each sequential phase of the product life cycle.
* Adaptive. With time-to-market or time-to-money being more and more important, the above sequential techniques are ineffective. Therefore, iterative, incremental, and agile approaches are considered Adaptive. It is recognized that a phase of the product process might be revisited — for example, if something was discovered during the design phase that necessitated going back and revising the specifications created in the requirements phase. The traditional waterfall can be modified slightly. This modification of the waterfall is called a spiral, or an iterative, approach. In the iterative life cycle, the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team's understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product.
Relative to the project management efforts, the upcoming phase is planned and managed at a very detailed level, whereas the later phases are planned at a lesser level of detail until more information is gained, which justifies a detailed planning effort. This type of project management effort is referred to as the rolling wave, or the phased approach to project management.
* Incremental. Approaches such as incremental builds and prototyping have emerged. In the incremental life cycle, the deliverable is produced through a series of iterations that successively add functionality within a predetermined time frame. The deliverable contains the necessary and sufficient capability to be considered complete only after the final iteration. For example, a prototype (a working model) is produced. The customers play with it, modifying/adding/deleting specifications, until the product is the way that they want it. Only then is the product officially released to be used by the entire customer community.
* Agile. Still not fast enough? Deliverable-driven and time-boxed efforts, called agile, become the basic premises for those projects that are needed faster (cheaper) and more reactive to changes during development. Agile suggests creating a minimally functional product and releasing it. Even before it is in the customer's hands, more features and functions are being added for the next release.(Continues…)
Excerpted from "The AMA Handbook of Project Management"
Copyright © 2018 Paul C. Dinsmore and Jeannette Cabanis-Brewin.
Excerpted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
FOREWORD David I. Cleland, PHD, FPMI ix
PREFACE Paul C. Dinsmore, PMP, and Jeannette Cabanis-Brewin xi
ABOUT THE EDITORS xv
CHAPTER 1 What Is Project Management?
Project Management Concepts and Methodologies
JOAN KNUTSON, PMP, AND FRANCIS M. WEBSTER, JR., PHD 1
The Project Management Body of Knowledge: Comprehension and Practice
CHAPTER 2 Bodies of Knowledge and Competency Standards in
ALAN M. STRETTON AND LYNN H. CRAWFORD 13
CHAPTER 3 Project Management Process Groups:
Project Management Knowledge in Action
GEREE STREUN, PMP, CSQE, PMI-ACP, CSSGB, CSM 29
CHAPTER 4 Project Initiation: Managing the Front End
PETER W.G. MORRIS AND ANDREW EDKINS 35
CHAPTER 5 Comprehensive Planning for Complex Projects
DAVID L. PELLS 45
CHAPTER 6 Monitoring and Control of Projects
WILLIAM P. ATHAYDE, JD, PMP 61
CHAPTER 7 Closing Processes: The End, and a Foundation for New Beginnings
LYNN H. CRAWFORD 69
CHAPTER 8 Project Management Integration in Practice
GEREE STREUN, PMP, CSQE, PMI-ACP, CSSGB, CSM 79
CHAPTER 9 Project Scope Management in Practice
RUTH H. ELSWICK, PMP 85
CHAPTER 10 Time Management in Practice
VALIS HOUSTON, PMP 93
CHAPTER 11 Project Cost Management in Practice
PAUL LOMBARD, PMP, CQM 105
CHAPTER 12 Project Quality Management in Practice
GEREE STREUN, PMP, CSQE, PMI-ACP, CSSGB, CSM 115
CHAPTER 13 Human Resource Management:
The People Side of Projects
HANS J. THAMHAIN, PHD, PMP 121
CHAPTER 14 Project Communication Management
RUTH H. ELSWICK, PMP 131
CHAPTER 15 Project Risk Management in Practice
DAVID HILLSON, PHD, PMP, PHI FELLOW, HONFAPM, FIRM, FRSA 139
CHAPTER 16 Project Procurement Management in Practice
JUDITH A. EDWARDS, PHD, PMP, IEEE (SM) 153
CHAPTER 17 Stakeholder Management for Project Success
RANDALL L. ENGLUND 167
The Profession of Project Management
CHAPTER 18 Preparing for the Project Management
Professional Certification Exam
THEODORE R. BOCCUZZI, PMP 177
CHAPTER 19 Competency and Careers in Project Management
J. KENT CRAWFORD, PMP, AND JEANNETTE CABANIS-BREWIN 189
CHAPTER 20 Project Management Ethics:
Responsibility, Values, and Ethics in Project Environments
THOMAS MENGEL, PHD, PMP 203
CHAPTER 21 Professionalization of Project Management:
What Does It Mean for Practice?
JANICE THOMAS, PHD 213
CHAPTER 22 Business Acumen for Today’s Project Manager
DEBORAH BIGELOW CRAWFORD, PMP 227
Organizational Issues in Project Management
CHAPTER 23 Projects: The Engine of Strategy Execution
JEANNETTE CABANIS-BREWIN AND JAMES S. PENNYPACKER 237
CHAPTER 24 Competing Through Project Management
KAM JUGDEV, PHD, PMP 247
CHAPTER 25 Enterprise Project Management: Elements and
CHRIS VANDERSLUIS 257
CHAPTER 26 Project Portfolio Management: Principles and Best Practices
GERALD I. KENDALL, PMP 267
CHAPTER 27 Enterprise Project Governance: Directing and Structuring
Organizational Project Decisions
PAUL C. DINSMORE, PMP, AND LUIZ ROCHA, PMP 279
CHAPTER 28 Performance and Value Measurement for Projects and Project Management
JAMES S. PENNYPACKER AND DEBORAH BIGELOW CRAWFORD, PMP 293
CHAPTER 29 Organizational Change Management
D. ALLEN YOUNG, PMP 307
CHAPTER 30 Managing Multiple Projects:
Balancing Time, Resources, and Objectives
LOWELL DYE, PMP 317
CHAPTER 31 Program Management
GINGER LEVIN, PHD, PMP, PGMP 329
CHAPTER 32 The Project Management Office: Trends and Tips
J. KENT CRAWFORD, PMP, AND JEANNETTE CABANIS-BREWIN 335
Issues, Ideas, and Methods in Project Management Practice
CHAPTER 33 Earned Value Management
LEE R. LAMBERT, PMP 351
CHAPTER 34 Dealing with Power and Politics in Project Management
RANDALL L. ENGLUND 367
CHAPTER 35 Multi-Project Constraint Management:
The “Critical Chain” Approach
FRANK PATRICK 377
CHAPTER 36 Six Sigma and Project Management
RIP STAUFFER 385
CHAPTER 37 Achieving Business Excellence Using Baldrige,
Business Process Management, Process Improvement a and Project Management
ALAN MENDELSSOHN AND MICHAEL HOWELL, ASQ 395
CHAPTER 38 Team Building and Interpersonal Skills for Dynamic Times
PAUL C. DINSMORE, PMP 407
CHAPTER 39 Cultural Challenges in Managing International Projects
PAUL C. DINSMORE, PMP, AND MANUEL M. BENITEZ CODAS 419
CHAPTER 40 Social Networking Tools: An Introduction to Their Role in
ALAN LEVINE 429
CHAPTER 41 Agile Project Management
KAREN R.J. WHITE, CSM, PMP 441
CHAPTER 42 Sustainability and Project Management
RICHARD MALTZMAN, PMP, AND DAVID SHIRLEY, PMP 451
Industry Applications of Project Management Practice
CHAPTER 43 Building Organizational Project Management Capability:
Learning from Engineering and Construction
CHRISTOPHER SAUER 467
CHAPTER 44 Why IT Matters:
Project Management for Information Technology
KAREN R.J. WHITE, CSM, PMP 479
CHAPTER 45 Applying Project Management Tools and Techniques in the Ecosystem Restoration Industry
STAN VERAART, PMP, SA CERTIFIED ARBORIST, AND DONALD ROSS 491
CHAPTER 46 Rescue Mission: Project Management in the Helping Professions
JEANNETTE CABANIS-BREWIN 497
CHAPTER 47 Focus on Financial Services: Mitigating Risk with
Transparency in a Regulated Environment
ROBIN MARKLE DUMAS, MBA 505
CHAPTER 48 Project Management for Marketing: Keep It Lean,
Don’t Slow Us Down
MARY YANOCHA 513
CHAPTER 49 Project Management in Healthcare: Making a Difference
Through Compassion, Caring, and Respect
JANICE WEAVER, PMP 523
CHAPTER 50 Global Infrastructure Projects: A Better Way
LUIZ ROCHA, PMP, AND VIANNA TAVARES, MSC, MBA, SCPM, PMP 533
ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS 541