The Handbook of Geoscience

The Handbook of Geoscience

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Overview

The Handbook of Geoscience by Frank R. Spellman, Melissa L. Stoudt

Written in an engaging and highly readable style, The Handbook of Geoscience is ideal for students, administrators, legal professionals, non-scientific professionals, and general readers with little or no science background. This handbook is a user-friendly overview of our physical, biological, and ecological environment, one that offers up-to-date coverage of the major scientific fields that form the structure of geoscience. Students who are enrolled in a geoscience course or one of its many subdisciplines will find this work an invaluable resource to support and supplement classroom instruction. The emphasis is on readability, with clear, example-driven explanations refined by more than 35 years of experience of instruction and student feedback.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780810886148
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 02/28/2013
Pages: 564
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.70(d)

About the Author

Frank R. Spellman is the author or co-author of more than 70 books on the natural sciences, as well as environmental and health sciences. He has served as a consultant for the U.S. Department of Justice, a variety of law firms, and a number of non-governmental organizations on environmental issues and health-related matters. He is formerly an assistant professor of environmental health at Old Dominion University.

Melissa L. Stoudt is a radiation controls training instructor at an atomic power laboratory. Previously, she instructed students and officers of the US Navy in proper radiation controls and handling of radioactive material. She is coauthor of Nuclear Infrastructure Protection and Homeland Security (Scarecrow Press 2011).

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

To the Reader xv

Part I The Basics

1 Introduction 3

Just the Facts, Ma'am 3

Measurements and Units 6

The Scientific Method 23

References and Recommended Reading 24

2 Basic Math Operations 25

Basic Math Terminology and Definitions 25

Sequence of Operations 27

Percent 30

Significant Digits 32

Powers and Exponents 34

Averages (Arithmetic Mean) 36

Solving for the Unknown 37

Ratio 44

Dimensional Analysis 47

Mass 51

Flow 52

Horsepower and Work 55

Area, Volume, and Density 55

Force, Pressure, and Head 65

3 Force and Motion 71

Position 71

Speed and Velocity 72

Acceleration 76

Force 78

Newton's Laws of Motion 78

4 Work, Energy, and Momentum 81

Work 81

Energy 82

Momentum 85

5 Circular Motion and Gravity 87

Angular Motion 88

Angular Velocity 89

Angular Acceleration 90

Torque 90

Angular Momentum 91

Gravity 91

6 Thermal Properties and States of Matter 93

Thermal Properties 93

Specific Heat 94

States of Matter 95

The Gas Laws 96

Liquids and Solutions 96

Part II Earth's Breath

7 The Atmosphere 101

Earth's Overhanging Roof 103

The Troposphere 105

The Stratosphere 105

"Revolutionary" Science 106

Components of Atmospheric Air: Characteristics and Properties 107

References and Recommended Reading 119

8 Moisture in the Atmosphere 121

Cloud Formation 122

Major Cloud Types 123

Precipitation and Evaporation 125

Precipitation 126

Types of Precipitation 128

Evapotranspiration 129

References and Recommended Reading 131

9 Atmosphere in Motion 133

Global Air Movement 133

Wind Farms 140

References and Recommended Reading 141

10 Meteorology: The Science of Weather 143

The Sun: The Weather Generator 144

Air Masses 146

Thermal Inversions and Air Pollution 146

References and Recommended Readings 148

11 Climate Change 149

Setting the Stage 149

The Past 153

References and Recommended Reading 163

Part III Earth's Geosphere (Lithosphere)

12 Earth's Structure 167

What is Geology? 169

Scientific Principles and Geology 170

Geology: Major Divisions 170

Earth's Geological Processes 171

Planet Earth 175

Principal Divisions of the Earth 176

Key Terms 179

Earth's Skeleton 181

References and Recommended Reading 182

13 Minerals 185

Matter 185

Physical Properties 186

Chemical Properties 192

Crystal Structure 193

Rock-Forming Minerals 194

Metallic Minerals 196

Radioactive Minerals 197

Nonmetallic Minerals 198

References and Recommended Reading 198

14 Igneous Rocks & Magna Eruption 199

Magma 200

Intrusive Rocks 201

Extrusive Rocks 201

Bowen's Reaction Series 201

Eruption of Magma 204

Lava Flow Terminology 209

Intrusions 210

Volcanic Landforms 211

Thermal Areas 212

References and Recommended Reading 212

15 Sedimentary Rocks 215

Types of Sedimentary Rocks 216

United States: Coal-Shale Deposits 218

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks 224

Physical Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks 225

Sedimentary Rock Facies 226

References and Recommended Reading 226

16 Metamorphism and Deformation 231

Metamorphism: Sources of Heat and Pressure 232

Types of Metamorphism 232

Major Metamorphic Rock Types 233

Metamorphic Facies 235

Deformation of Rock 236

Folding of Rocks 242

Deformation of the Crust: Mountain Building 243

References and Recommended Reading 244

17 Weathering 245

Factors That Influence Weathering 245

Categories of Weathering Processes 246

References and Recommended Reading 249

18 Wind Erosion, Mass Wasting, and Desertification 251

Wind Erosion 251

Wind Sediment Transport 254

Wind-Driven Erosion 254

Wind Deposition 255

Mass Wasting 261

References and Recommended Reading 265

19 Glaciation 267

Glaciers 268

Glaciation 270

References and Recommended Reading 273

20 Earthquakes 275

What Causes Earthquakes? 275

Seismology 276

Seismic Waves 277

Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity 277

Internal Structure of Earth 279

References and Recommended Reading 280

21 Plate Tectonics 281

Crustal Plates 281

Plate Boundaries 282

References and Recommended Reading 283

22 Historical Geology 285

Stratigraphy 286

Stratigraphic Laws 287

Relative versus Absolute Time 289

References and Recommended Reading 296

Part IV Hydrosphere

23 Earth's Blood 299

Setting the Stage 300

Earth's Blood Is Life's Blood 307

Historical Perspective 309

References and Recommended Reading 311

24 All about Water 313

How Special, Strange, and Different Is Water? 313

Characteristics of Water 314

Water's Physical Properties 318

Capillary Action 318

The Water Cycle 319

Q and Q Factors 322

Watershed Protection 322

Potable Water Source 324

Surface Water 326

Groundwater Supply 331

GUIDSW 334

Water Use 336

References and Recommended Reading 337

25 Stream Systems 339

Stream Genesis and Structure 339

Streams 341

Key Terms 341

Characteristics of Stream Channels 342

Water Flow in a Stream 345

Stream Water Discharge 346

Transport of Material (Load) 346

References and Recommended Reading 348

26 Lakes 349

Lentic Habitat 349

Classification of Lakes 352

References and Recommended Reading 355

27 Oceans and Their Margins 357

Oceans 357

Ocean Tides, Currents, and Waves 359

Coastal Erosion, Transportation, and Deposition 360

References and Recommended Reading 362

Part V Pedosphere

28 Soil: Earth's Skin and Tissue 367

Soil: What is it? 370

All about Soil 371

Soil Properties 378

Soil Formation 381

Soil Characterization 383

Soil Mechanics and Physics 389

Soil Particle Characteristics 392

Soil Stress 393

Soil Compressibility 394

Soil Compaction 394

References and Recommended Reading 399

Part VI Biosphere

29 Earth's Life-Forms and Interrelationships 403

What Is Life? 404

Levels of Organization 406

Biological Diversity 407

Classification 408

Kingdoms of Life 409

Bacteria 410

Viruses 412

Protists 413

Fungi 422

Plants 426

Animals 434

Human Evolution 438

Ecosystem 438

Biomes 440

Community Ecology 443

Population Ecology 444

Flow of Energy in an Ecosystem 450

References and Recommended Reading 457

Part VII Geodesy

30 Measuring Earth 463

Geography 463

Mother of All Sciences 465

The Big Picture 466

History of Geography 466

Branches of Geography 469

Tools of Geography 470

Five Themes of Geography 476

Key Points of Geographical Mapping and Locations 479

National Geography Standards 480

Geodesy 480

References and Recommended Reading 491

Glossary 493

Index 537

About the Authors 547

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