Apparently, intelligent behaviour is, to a great extent, the result of using a sophisticated associative memory, more than the result of heavy processing. The book describes theories on how the brain works, associative memory models and how a particular model - the Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) - can be used to navigate a robot based on visual memories. Other robot navigation methods are also comprehensively revised and compared to the method proposed. The performance of the SDM-based robot has been tested in different typical problems, such as illumination changes, occlusions and image noise, taking the SDM to the limits. The results are extensively discussed in the book.