A vast and complicated array of subject matter is subjected to analysis, comment, and speculation by fifteen contributors representing three separate but contiguous disciplines. Their approaches are as various as one would expect. One is concerned with the bonds that hold associations together, and another with the tendency for the private to become public. One sees associations as interferences with democratic political processes, while another is more impressed by their positive values. Still another shows that the way in which they operate in the political process depends not only on the kind of association but also upon the political context within which they operate.
Pennock and Chapman say that the theorist's job is to speculate and to interpret the facts as he sees them. It is also the theorist's job to suggest hypotheses for testing: to point to lines of inquiry that should be pursued. One cannot read the essays in this volume, without having his eyes openedor opened widerboth to the paucity of information about the political features of voluntary associations and to the wide variety of aspects from which the subject needs to be approached.
The kinds of questions that need to be examined can be grouped in categories. The first focuses on the individual: What kinds of memberships does he have? Even more, what is the effect upon him of membership in each kind of association? The second examines internal composition and workings of organizations. The third focuses on the state as a whole and the effect of organized groups upon it, the political processes of the associational structure of the society, and modes of behavior of these associations.
Organized groups play an intermediate role in the polity. At the same time, the state, and those charged at any particular time with the performance of its functions, must look primarily to new associations within it to secure compliance with its law and for guidance in shaping those laws.
About the Author
J. Roland Pennock was professor of political science at Swarthmore College for more than twenty-five years, as well as a fellow at the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.
John W. Chapman is professor emeritus of political science at the University of Pittsburgh.
Table of Contents
The Nature of Voluntary Associations
Two Principles of Human Association Lon L. Fuller 3
Commentary: Shared Commitment and the Legal Principle Abraham Edel 24
Commentary: Transcending Privacy Henry S. Kariel 35
Voluntary Association as a Rational Ideal H. S. Harris 41
Commentary: Constitutional Ideals and Private Associations Willard Hurst 63
Man and Society: An Examination of Three Models Leonard C. Boonin 69
Voluntary Association and the Political Theory of Pluralism John W. Chapman 87
Rousseau on Intermediate Associations Maure L. Goldschmidt 119
Some Remarks on Tocqueville's View of Voluntary Associations George Kateb 138
Pluralism in Practice
The Public Values of the Private Association Grant McConnell 147
Commentary: Pluralism, Empiricism, and the Secondary Association David Sidorsky 161
Private Government in the Managed Society Sanford A. Lakoff 170
Voluntary Association: The Basis of an Ideal Model, and the "Democratic" Failure William Leon McBride 202
The Constitution and theVoluntary Association: Some Notes Toward a Theory Arthur Selwyn Miller 233
Corporative Organization: The Case of a French Rural Association Suzanne Berger 263
Epilogue J. Roland Pennock 285