Two previous NATO Advanced Study Institutes (ASI) on berthing and mooring of ships have been held; the first in Lisboa, Portugal in 1965, and the second at Wallingford, England in 1973. These ASls have contributed significantly to the under standing and development of fenders and mooring, as have works by Oil Companies International Marine Forum (1978) and PIANC (1984). Developments in ship sizes and building of new specialized terminals at very exposed locations have necessitated further advances in the combined mooring and fendering technology. Exploration and exploitation of the continental shelves have also brought about new and challenging problems, developments and solutions. Offshore activities and developments have in fluenced and improved knowledge about both ships and other floating structures which are berthed and/or moored under various environmental conditions. The scope of this ASI was to present recent advances in berth ing and mooring of ships and mooring of floating offshore structures, focusing on models and tools available with a view towards safety and reduction of frequencies and consequences of accidents.
Table of ContentsInvited Lectures.- Historical Development of Berthing and Mooring.- Berthing and Mooring Accident Statistics and Use of Risk Analysis in Berthing and Mooring.- Marine Terminal Technology. Winch Berthing and Mooring. Recent Developments.- On the Prediction of Fender Forces at Berthing Structures. Part I: Calculation Method(s).- On the Prediction of Fender Forces at Berthing Structures. Part II: Ship Berthing Related to Fender Structure.- Use of Statistical Data and Methods in Impact Evaluation of Fender Design.- Wind and Wind Fluctuations.- Computer Modelling of Wave Propagation in Coastal Areas and Harbours.- Field Observations of Ship Behaviour at Berth.- Forces Related to Motions of Moored Ships. Analytical Methods of Moored Ship Motions.- Optimization and Safety Considerations in the Design of Stationkeeping Systems.- Simulation of Motions of Berthed Vessels - Simplified Simulation Model.- Written Contributions.- Rapid In Field Ferryberth Construction.- The Probabilistic Approach in the Selection of Ropes and Fenders.- Distribution of Berthing Speed and Eccentricity Factor of VLCC Investigated in Japan.- The Virtual Mass Coefficient of Berthing Ship.- Ships and Berth Structures Interactions.- Effect of Fluctuation of Wind on Ship Motions.- Consideration on Safety of Fendering System.- Long Waves and Moored Ship Behaviour at the Port of Sines - A Research Project.- Observation of Ship Motions in Rough Weather Conditions.- Effect of Characteristics of Mooring Systems and External Forces to Motions of Moored Ships.- Asymptotic and Variational Methods Applied to the Evaluation of Wave Drift Forces.- Mooring Systems of VLCC, LPGC and LNGC in Japan.- Effect of Mooring Lines on Ship Motions.- Ship Deck Machinery Design Forces, Arrangement and Equipment.- Mooring Systems for Ships Harbouring in Port.- Fenders Installed in Japan.- Fenders Used in Turkey.- Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of an Advanced Fender/Mooring System Based on Energy Absorbing Principles.- To Whom is the Responsibility for Berthing and Mooring Operations to be Entrusted?.- Mooring Systems of the World Largest Floating Oil Storage Base.- The Use of Marine Fenders as Energy Absorbing Damper Units in Mooring Systems.- Possible Future Developments.- Conclusions and Recommendations.- List of Participants.