Afghanistan: Political Frailty and External Interference

Afghanistan: Political Frailty and External Interference

by Nabi Misdaq


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780415470247
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 07/30/2008
Pages: 380
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.90(d)
Age Range: 1 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

List of illustrations     xiii
Preface     xiv
Acknowledgements     xviii
Acronyms     xix
Introduction     1
Aims and objectives     1
The scope of the book     2
Population and society in Afghanistan     6
Tribe and Pashtunwali     9
Pashtunwali     10
Afghanistan in history and anthropology     11
The Afghan state     19
The patrimonial state     19
The segmentary state     22
Nation and nationalism     24
Ethnicity     29
Islam     30
Conclusion     32
A state in the making     33
Formation of the Afghan state: 1747-72     35
Introduction     35
Struggle against the Moghuls: the Roshani movement     36
Initial attempt in forming the state: the Ghilzai uprising, the Kandahar state 39
The conquest of Persia: Mir Wais' family wrangles, the Hotak downfall     40
The 1747 Jirga: election of Ahmad Shah in Kandahar     42
Ahmad Khan as king: final attempt to form the state     44
Declaration of independence     44
Ahmad Shah: from king to emperor     45
State formation     48
Conclusion     50
State to nation: 1773-1973     52
Introduction     52
The fragility of the Afghan state     52
Rivalry between Abdali (Durrani) confederacies     53
The segmentary state     54
Attempts at modernisation     56
Amir Abdur Rahman: the second Anglo-Afghan war (1879-81)     56
Internal 'nationalisation' policy     59
External policy     60
Amanullah the Great Reformer: 1919-29     62
Revolt at home     64
Nader Shah:1929-33     66
The geopolitical position of Afghanistan: its vulnerability to external forces     67
Conclusion     71
Sowing the seeds of turmoil     73
Daoud's republic: 1973-78     75
Introduction     75
Pashtunistan     77
The decade of constitution     79
Experiment in democracy     80
Assessing the decade of constitution     81
Daoud's comeback     82
Daoud's Soviet connection     84
Why Daoud came to power     85
Daoud in office     87
Daoud's u-turn on the communists      90
Murders, assassinations and Daoud's overthrow     93
Conclusion     95
Afghan communist parties and personalities     97
Introduction     97
Leftists and nationalists come of age     98
The entry of the communists     99
Strife among the communists     103
Key communist leaders     107
Nur Mohammad Taraki     107
Hafizullah Amin     109
Babrak Karmal     113
Conclusion     115
Events leading to the Soviet invasion     117
Introduction     117
PDPA internal tensions play into Soviet hands     118
Khalq vs. Parcham     118
Tension within the Khalq leadership     121
Soviets prepare the grounds for invasion     126
Soviets taking stock of uprisings and discontent     126
Amin's 104 days in office     130
Conclusion     138
Battleground of superpowers     141
Afghan resistance: 1975-92     143
Introduction     143
Manning, finance and the organisation of resistance     144
The Islamist movement in Afghanistan     146
Resistance against Daoud      149
Resistance against the communists     152
Resistance against the Soviets     155
World reaction     156
Afghan reaction     157
The Kabul government's counter resistance     161
The Kabul government and the Soviet expenses of war     163
Resistance against the Soviet surrogate government     164
Conclusion     166
From common cause to internal war and the rise of the Taleban     167
Introduction     167
The struggle for power     168
The Kabul communists, the Loya Jirga and the king     169
A new anti-Pashtun alliance     171
The struggle for political power     172
The urban guerrilla war     173
The Taleban     175
The rise of the Taleban     176
Taleban conquests     179
A closer look at the Taleban movement     189
Conclusion     194
Post-communist ethnicity     198
Introduction     198
Ethnicity in the pre-state era     199
Ethnicity in the Afghan kingdom     199
Post-communist ethnicity     201
The ethnic divide     202
Dividing Afghanistan on ethnic lines      211
Ethnicity revitalised     213
Harmony and provocation     217
Conclusion     221
Conclusion     224
Introduction     224
Continuity and discontinuity     224
Terrain     224
Tribe as a cornerstone of governance     225
The emergence of the modern Afghan nation-state     227
R-sistance to modernity     228
The decade of the constitution     229
Ethnicity and ideology in contemporary Afghanistan     230
Comparative and theoretical issues: tribe and state     233
Islam     234
The way ahead     236
Epilogue: America's and Afghanistan's 9/11     241
Introduction     241
Background to the US occupation: the Osama bin Laden affair     241
American bombing and occupation     244
Karzai and the new government     248
Karzai as America's leader for Afghanistan     251
Winning hearts and minds?     253
Long-term consequences of American occupation     266
Conclusion     269
Categorising books on Afghanistan     271
The institutions of Pashtunwali     273
Islam and Pashtunwali     275
State and Islamic jurisprudence     277
Struggle against Persians in the West     280
Abdali uprising, intrigue and deception     281
The early life of Ahmad Shah, king in waiting     283
Nader Shah's assassination, formation of the Afghan state     285
Britain's Forward Policy and the 'great game'     287
British and Soviet/Russian interest in Afghanistan     290
The Pashtunistan issue     293
Why was the Durand Agreement signed?     294
The British drawing of this line did not incorporate all the tribes     295
Could partition of British India legally pass on these tribes to the successor state of Pakistan?     296
What constitutes the claim over this territory and its people by the two disputing countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan?     297
The initial months of communists in power     300
Mujahideen resistance parties     302
Islamist     302
Moderate parties     303
Shi'ah parties     305
Geneva negotiations     306
Background to the talks     306
The mechanism for the talks     307
The agenda for negotiation     309
Russian designs on Afghanistan      310
Notes     311
Bibliography     335
Index     344

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