Aging is an almost universal process within biological systems, one which leads to a decline in functional capacity, disease onset, and eventually death. There has been much interest in recent years to elucidate the molecular mec- nisms that underlie the aging process. Many theories have been proposed since the last century that aim to explain the causes of aging. There is no one theory that completely satisfies the phenotype of aging, but genetics and environm- tal factors play an important role in the etiology of age-related pathologies and the aging process. However, there is still much to be learned about the aging process which has been termed one of the last great frontiers in biology. De- graphic changes worldwide are leading to increased average life expectancies within our populations. These changes in population characteristics will impact upon the economies of the supporting society, with increasing healthcare and infrastructural costs arising from the prevalence of age-related pathologies and other physical disabilities associated with advancing years. Many researchers worldwide are working in the attempt to identify key cellular processes through which it might one day be possible to slow down the aging process and thus increase the health span of humans. Numerous research projectsfrom the cellular through to tissue, organ, and whole organism studiesare currently underway to investigate the mul- factorial aging process.
Table of ContentsUnderstanding Aging, Bernard L. Strehler. Part I. The Study of Cell Senescence and Cell Death. Use of the Fibroblast Model in the Study of Cellular Senescence, Vincent J. Cristofalo, Craig Volker, and Robert G. Allen. Human T-Cell Clones, Graham Pawelec. Telomeres and Replicative Senescence, Hector F. Valenzuela and Rita B. Effros. Detection of Molecular Events During Apoptosis by Flow Cytometry, Ruaidhri J. Carmody, Ana P. Costa-Pereira, Sharon L. McKenna, and Tom G. Cotter. Raf-1 Protein Kinase Activity in T Cells from Aged Mice, Christopher J. Kirk and Richard A. Miller. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Young and Senescent T Cells, Andrea Engel, Mahdi Adibzadeh, and Graham Pawelec. Part II. Age-Related Changes to Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Systems. Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzyme Systems and Aging, Christopher R. Barnett and Costas Ioannides. Part III. Age-Related Changes to Defense Systems Against Biomolecule Damage. Assessing Age-Related Changes in Antioxidant Status: The FRASC Assay for Total Antioxidant Power and Ascorbic Acid Concentration in Biological Fluids, Iris F. F. Benzie and John J. Strain. Measurement of DNA Damage and Repair Capacity as a Function of Age Using the Comet Assay, Peter H. Clingen, Jillian E. Lowe, and Michael H. L. Green. Measurement of DNA Damage and Repair in Human White Blood Cells by an Immunochemical Assay, Govert P. van der Schans. Part IV. Age-Related Changes to Cellular Biomolecules. Measurement of 8-Oxo-deoxyguanosine in Lymphocytes, Cultured Cells, and Tissue Samples by HPLC with Electrochemical Detection, Sharon G. Wood, Catherine M. Gedik, Nicholas J. Vaughan, and Andrew R. Collins. Mutation and the Aging Process: Mutant Frequency at the HPRT Gene Locus as a Function of Age in Humans, Yvonne A. Barnett and Christopher R. Barnett. Somatic Mutations and Aging: Methods for Molecular Analysis of HPRT Mutations, Sai-Mei Hou. Assessment of Susceptibility of Low-Density Lipoprotein to Oxidation, Jane McEnenyand Ian S. Young. Measurement of Pentosidine in Biological Samples, Jesus R. Requena, David L. Price, Suzanne R. Thorpe, and John W. Baynes. Part V. Mitochondrial Mutation and Function with Age. Causes and Consequences of Damage to Mitochondria: Morphological Aspects, Jaime Miquel and Carlo Bertoni-Freddari. Causes and Consequences of Damage to Mitochondria: Study of Functional Aspects by Flow Cytometry, Federico V. Pallardo, Juan Sastre, Jaime Miquel, and José Viña. Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations: Deletions, Robert W. Taylor, Theresa M. Wardell, Emma L. Blakely, Gillian M. Borthwick, Elizabeth J. Brierley, and Douglass M. Turnbull. Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Mutations: Point Mutations, Robert W. Taylor, Richard M. Andrews, Patrick F. Chinnery, and Douglass M. Turnbull. Part VI. Immune System and Aging. Assessment of T-Cell Function in the Aged: T-Cell Proliferative and T-Cell Adherence Assays, Ian Beckman. Dendritic Cells in Old Age, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Maria Saurwein-Teissl, and Nikolaus Romani. Age-Related Alterations to Natural Killer Cell Function, Erminia Mariani, Corona Alonso, and Rafael Solana. Immunogenetics and Lifespan: HLA, Derek Middleton, Martin D. Curran, and Fionnuala Williams. Part VII. Case Studies. Dietary Restriction and Life-Span Extension, Byung Pal Yu. The Use of Genetically Engineered Mice in Aging Research, Julie K. Andersen. Index.