Pub. Date:
Springer Netherlands
Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria and Cyanobacterial Associations / Edition 1

Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria and Cyanobacterial Associations / Edition 1

by Claudine Elmerich, William E. Newton


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781402035418
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 12/19/2006
Series: Nitrogen Fixation: Origins, Applications, and Research Progress , #5
Edition description: 2007
Pages: 323
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Series     ix
Preface     xiii
List of Contributors     xvii
Dedication   Johanna Dobereiner     xxi
Historical Perspective: From Bacterization to Endophytes   C. Elmerich     1
The Nitrogen Cycle: Heritage from the 19th Century     1
Nutritional Interactions between Bacteria and Plants     3
Associative Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria     8
Discovery of Nitrogen-fixing Endophytes     11
Cyanobacterial Associations     14
Concluding Remarks     15
Acknowledgement     16
References     16
Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Root Associated Diazotrophic [Alpha] and [Beta]-Proteobacteria   M. Schmid   A. Hartmann     21
Introduction     21
Tools for Molecular Phylogeny and in situ Localization of Bacterial Isolates and Communities     23
Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Azospirillum and Other Nitrogen-fixing [Alpha]-Subclass Proteobaeteria     27
Molecular Phylogeny and Ecology of Herbaspirillum, Diazotrophic Burkholderia spp., and Other N[subscript 2]-fixing [Beta]-Proteobacteria     29
Conclusions and Prospects for Future Studies     35
Acknowledgements     36
References     36
Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Assimilation in Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen fixing Bacteria   F. O. Pedrosa   C. Elmerich     41
Introduction     41
Rhizospheric and Endophytic Bacteria: General Features     42
Structural Organization of nif Genes     44
Identification of RpoN and Its Involvement in Nitrogen Fixation     48
The Ntr System and the Control of Nitrogen Metabolism and Nitrogen Fixation     49
Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation     57
Conclusions     64
Acknowledgements     64
References     65
Chemotaxis in Soil Diazotrophs: Survival and Adaptative Response   G. Alexandre   I. B. Zhulin     73
Introduction     73
Gene-Expression Regulation and Chemotaxis as Adaptive Responses to Environmental Changes     74
Molecular Mechanism of the Chemotactic Response: Learning from Escherichia coli     75
Directed Motility in Soil Diazotrophs     78
Future Studies     82
References     82
Molecular Genetics of Rhizosphere and Plant-Root Colonization   E. Vanbleu   J. Vanderleyden     85
Introduction     85
Motility of Associative Diazotrophs     86
Attachment to Plant Roots     90
Rhizosphere Competence     94
Conclusions     103
Acknowledgements     105
References     105
Microbial Production of Plant Hormones   B. E. Baca   C. Elmerich     113
Discovery of Phytohormones     113
Production and Role of Phytohormones     115
Pathways for Plant Hormone Biosynthesis: Common Routes in Plants, Bacteria and Fungi     118
Major Routes for IAA synthesis in Pathogenic and Beneficial Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria Associated with Plants     123
Multiple Routes for IAA Synthesis in Azospirillum     127
Other Phytohormones Produced by Plant Pathogenic and Nitrogen-fixing Associated and Endophytic Bacteria     130
Plant Growth Promotion (PGP): Role of Bacterial Phytohormone Production, ACC-Deaminase, and Use of Synthetic Auxins     133
Concluding Remarks     136
Acknowledgements     137
References     137
The Plant Growth-Promoting Effect and Plant Responses   S. Dobbelaere   Y. Okon     145
N[subscript 2] Fixation vs. "Hormonal" Effects: Historical Perspectives     145
Effects of Azospirillum and Other Diazotrophs on Root Morphology      146
Effects on Root Function     154
Effects on Plant Growth     160
Future Studies     163
References     164
Biocontrol of Plant Diseases by Associative and Endophytic Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria   R. Bally   C. Elmerich     171
Beneficial Plant-Associated Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria and Biocontrol of Plant Disease     171
Interactions within Microbial Communities: Competition Mechanisms     172
Biological Control against Soil-Borne Diseases     174
Regulation of Biocontrol Properties and Cell-Cell Communication     178
Plant Response to Pathogens and Biological Control in the Rhizosphere     182
Concluding Remarks     183
Acknowledgements     184
References     184
Endophytic Associations of Azoarcus spp.   B. Reinhold-Hurek   T. Hurek     191
Introduction     191
The Rise of Interest in Diazotrophic Endophytes     192
Azoarcus spp. and related Genera: Strictly Plant-Associated versus Soil Bacteria     194
Habitats and Ecophysiology     198
Interactions with Fungi     201
Infection of Roots by Endophytic Diazotrophs: An Active, Specific Process?     202
Concluding Remarks      207
References     207
Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Sugarcane   V. Reis   S. Lee   C. Kennedy     213
Short Story of the Sugarcane-Cropping System     213
Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria Colonising Sugarcane: New Phylogenetic Data, Properties, and Endophytic Status     215
Contribution of BNF to the Sugarcane Crop     219
Effect of N Ferfilization on BNF     220
Genes for Nitrogen Fixation and Their Regulation in G. diazotrophicus and H. seropedicae     221
Is Indole Acetic Acid Production an Important Factor in the Ability of G. diazotrophicus to Enhance Growth of Sugarcane?     225
Concluding Remarks     226
Acknowledgement     227
References     228
Heterocyst Differentiation and Nitrogen Fixation in Cyanobacteria   R. Haselkorn     233
Early History of the Association of Nitrogen Fixation with Heterocysts     233
Cyanobacterial Nitrogenase and nif-Genes Organization     236
Pathway of N Assimilation     239
Carbon Metabolism in Heterocysts     240
Genetic Tools for Studying Cyanobacteria] Nitrogen Fixation     241
Regulatory Genes Required for Heterocyst Differentiation     242
Prospects      251
Acknowledgement     252
References     252
Cyanobacterial Associations   B. Bergman   A. N. Rai   U. Rasmussen     257
Introduction     257
Historical Aspects and Landmarks     259
Symbioses with Diatoms (Algae)     261
Symbioses with Fungi     264
Symbiosis with Bryophytes     270
Symbiosis with Pteridophytes     274
Symbioses with Cycads     277
Symbiosis with Gunnera     282
Creation of New Symbioses and Prospects     290
Acknowledgements     292
References     292
Prospects for Significant Nitrogen Fixation in Grasses from Bacterial Endophytes   E. W. Triplett     303
Ultimate Objective of Nitrogen-fixation Research - Nitrogen Fixation in Maize, Wheat, and Rice     303
Understanding the Basic Biology of Endophytic Colonization: Using Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 (Kp342) as the Model Diazotrophic Endophyte     305
Attributes Needed for a Model Diazotrophic Endophyte     307
Future Work Needed to Replace Nitrogen Fertilizer with Diazotrophic Endophytes     310
References     312
Subject Index     315

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