Biomaterials: An Introduction

Biomaterials: An Introduction

by J. Park


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This book is written for students who want a working knowledge in the field of implant materials. Obviously, the interdisciplinary nature of this subject has been a major obstacle in writing a book of this nature. In writing this book, I have attempted to cover both biological and nonbiological (man-made) materials for obvious reasons. Hence, this book can be divided into three parts-man-made materials, biological materials, and implant materials. The fundamental structure-property relationship is dealt with in the beginning, followed by the biological materials. Implant materials or biomaterials as such are not greatly different from other man-made materials. Therefore, their acceptability in the body is emphasized. In addition, the reasons for a particular implant design and its material selection have been given special attention. An effort is made to convert all the units into SI units although one or 10 two exceptions are made such as A (= 10- m). Also some abbreviations such as vlo (volume %) and wlo (weight %) are used for brevity. To cover the wide range of subjects dealt with in this book, I have used countless original and review articles as well as my own research proposals. A conscientious effort has been made to give credit to the original sources. Credit is given in the captions ofthe illustrations. For the occasional oversight of some tables and figures which could not be traced, the author offers his apologies.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468434255
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 11/25/2012
Edition description: 1979
Pages: 251
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 • Introduction.- Further Reading.- 2 • Characterization of Materials.- 2.1. Mechanical Properties.- 2.1.1. Stress-Strain Behavior.- 2.1.2. Mechanical Failure.- 2.1.3. Viscoelasticity.- 2.1.4. Pure Bending Stress.- 2.2. Thermal Properties.- 2.3. Surface Properties and Adhesion.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 3 • The Structure of Solids.- 3.1. Bonding between Atoms.- 3.2. Arrangement of Atoms.- 3.2.1. Atoms of the Same Size.- 3.2.2. Atoms of Different Size.- 3.3. Imperfections in Structures.- 3.4. Amorphous Solids.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 4 • Metals and Alloys.- 4.1. Alloys and Phase Diagrams.- 4.2. Imperfections and Strengthening Mechanisms.- 4.3. Corrosion of Metals.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 5 • Ceramic Materials.- 5.1. Atomic Bonding and Arrangement.- 5.2. Physical Properties.- 5.3. Deterioration of Ceramic Materials.- 5.4. Carbons.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 6 • Polymeric Materials.- 6.1. Polymerization.- 6.1.1. Condensation Polymerization.- 6.1.2. Addition or Free Radical Polymerization.- 6.1.3. Solid State of Polymers.- 6.2. Effect of Structural Modification on Properties.- 6.2.1. Effect of Molecular Weight and Composition.- 6.2.2. Effect of Side-Chain Substitution, Cross-Linking, and Branching.- 6.3. Properties of Polymers.- 6.3.1. Mechanical Properties.- 6.3.2. Thermal Properties.- 6.4. Deterioration of Polymers.- 6.4.1. Chemical Effects.- 6.4.2. Thermal Effects during Sterilization.- 6.4.3. Mechanochemical Effect.- 6.4.4. Deterioration of Polymers in Vivo.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 7 • Structure-Property Relationships of Biological Materials.- 7.1. Structure of Proteins and Polysaccharides.- 7.1.1. Proteins.- 7.1.2. Polysaccharides.- 7.2. Structure-Property Relationship of Tissues.- 7.2.1. Collagen-Rich and Mineralized Tissues.- 7.2.2. Elastic Tissues.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 8 • Tissue Response to Implants.- 8.1. Wound Healing Process.- 8.1.1. Inflammation.- 8.1.2. Cellular Response to Repair.- 8.2. Body Response to Implants.- 8.2.1. Cellular Response to Implants.- 8.2.2. Systemic Effects by Implants.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 9 • Soft Tissue Replacement I: Sutures, Skin, and Maxillofacial Implants.- 9.1. Sutures, Surgical Tapes, and Adhesives.- 9.1.1. Sutures.- 9.1.2. Surgical Tapes.- 9.1.3. Tissue Adhesives.- 9.2. Percutaneous and Skin Implants.- 9.2.1. Percutaneous Devices.- 9.2.2. Artificial Skin.- 9.3. Maxillofacial and Other Soft Tissue Augmentation.- 9.3.1. Maxillofacial Implant.- 9.3.2. Other Soft Tissue Implants.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 10 • Soft Tissue Replacement II: Blood Interfacing Implants.- 10.1. Blood Compatibility.- 10.1.1. Factors Affecting Blood Compatibility.- 10.1.2. Nonthrombogenic Surfaces.- 10.2. Implants for Blood Interface.- 10.2.1. Vascular Implants.- 10.2.2. Heart Valve Implants.- 10.2.3. Heart Assist Devices.- 10.2.4. Artificial Organs.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 11 • Hard Tissue Replacement I: Long Bone Repair.- 11.1. Internal Fracture Fixation Devices.- 11.1.1. Wires and Screws.- 11.1.2. Fracture Plates.- 11.1.3. Intramedullary Devices.- 11.1.4. Nail and Plate Devices for Femoral Osteotomy.- 11.1.5. Spinal Fixation Devices.- 11.2. Materials Used for Internal Fracture Fixation Devices.- 11.2.1. Stainless Steels.- 11.2.2. Cobalt-Chromium Alloys.- 11.2.3. Other Metals.- Problems.- Further Reading.- 12 • Hard Tissue Replacement II: Joints and Teeth.- 12.1. Structure and Function of Joints.- 12.2. Various Joint Replacements.- 12.2.1. Hip Joint Replacement.- 12.2.2. Other Joint Replacements.- 12.2.3. Materials Used for Joint Replacements.- 12.3. Dental Implants.- 12.3.1. Endosseous Implants.- 12.3.2. Other Dental Implants.- 12.3.3. Materials Used for Dental Implants.- Problems.- Further Reading.- Appendix: SI Units.- Name Index.

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