Even before September 11, 2001, congressional policymakers have expressed concern about the safety and security of facilities possessing certain amounts of hazardous chemicals. The sudden release of hazardous chemicals from facilities storing large quantities might potentially harm many people living or working near the facility. Chemical facilities engaged in security activities on a voluntary basis. Following September 11, 2001 some states enacted laws requiring additional consideration of security at chemical facilities. Congress debated whether the federal government should regulate such facilities for security purposes to reduce the risk they pose. This book provides a brief overview of the existing statutory authority to regulate chemical facilities with a focus on policy issues and options for congressional consideration.