Regarded as one of the leading experts in entrepreneurial analysis, Ruthann Quindlen educates the reader on the pitfalls and opportunities available in the world of venture capitalism. Her ideas are founded in ten commandments for entrepreneurs.
|Publisher:||Grand Central Publishing|
|Product dimensions:||6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.55(d)|
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Working in the Bubble
I referred to the magic of Silicon Valley. That magican intoxicating mix of money, imagination, and inspirationhad its origin in the semiconductor boom of the 1970s, when dozens of companies seized on possibilities made ripe by Intel's development of the first microprocessor. Millions of dollars were generated, new industries were born, and a hilly strip of land south of San Francisco, land that was once home to a sprawling patchwork of orchard groves, became popularly known as "Silicon Valley."
Today Silicon Valley feels like a bubble. I should know: We venture capitalists live, work, eat, drink, and schmooze right smack in the center of that bubble. And so do most of the entrepreneurs.
The word "bubble" conjures different images for different people. Some may think of soap bubblestranslucent and beautiful, but fragile and short-lived. Others may think of the rich and famous, always caught in the fishbowl, or even of closed-environment bubbles like Biosphere II, where people try to recycle air and live off of their own waste products.
Silicon Valley is something like all of these bubbles. It is an enclosed, wealthy, fragile yet beautiful, breathing-its-own-fumes kind of place. And it is no exaggeration to say that there is no other place on earth quite like it.
There is a kind of bull's-eye target effect at work in the geography of Silicon Valley. Entrepreneurs live and work in towns and developments ranging all the way from San Francisco down the Pacific coast to Monterey. Venture capitalists, the keepers ofthe capital that fuels the Valley, generally live within a twenty-mile radius stretching out from Stanford. But the financial ground zero of Silicon Valley is a single street, the one street where almost all the venture capitalists work: Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park.
Sand Hill Road, which lies on land owned by Stanford University, runs close by the idyllic, palm-tree-lined Stanford campus. A wholly unremarkable road lined with low-slung buildings, gently sloping hills, and scrub brush, it begins with a riding stable and Christmas tree farm on the west side of Interstate 280 and runs for about three miles east before ending unceremoniously in the parking lot of the Stanford Shopping Center.
It's difficult to picture tycoons of finance and technology making deals in such a tranquil-looking setting. But dozens of venture capital firms line this street, representing some of the most powerful investors in one of the most influential businesses in the country. Some of the firms on Sand Hill Roadfirms like Kleiner Perkins, Mayfield, Sequoia, and IVPhave name recognition of their own. Even better known are the names of companies that Sand Hill Road venture capitalist have invested in: Sun Microsystems, Netscape, Cisco, Intel, Apple, Excite, Yahoo! These companies are changing the way the world computes and communicates, and many got their start with assistance from Sand Hill Road venture capital firms. In any given year, the venture capitalists on this stretch of road might collectively represent as much as $10 billion worth of investable capital.
The mere words "Sand Hill" now hold an almost mystical meaning within Silicon Valley. The road has taken on a persona of its own: in the Valley you will hear people say, "Sand Hill thinks like this," or "Sand Hill didn't go for that idea." Being part of the so-called Sand Hill crowd, you can sometimes forget that the rest of the countrynot to mention the worldmay not be in on the reference.
I was once asked to address the leaders of the National Association of Broadcasters at Pebble Beach in Carmel Valleya mere hundred miles from Silicon Valley. The title of my speech was "A View from Sand Hill." Trouble was, nobody knew what I was talking about. I spent the first ten minutes of my one-hour talk explaining the concept to them, which was a new experience for me. Explain what Sand Hill Road is? I had been living in the bubble so long that it hadn't occurred to me that people outside it might not know what I was talking about.
Silicon Valley is a place for people with ideas. It is a place where the right idea at the right time can yield remarkable returns for investors and entrepreneurs. It is known, rightly, as a place of simmering, sometimes spouting, creative enterprise.
How ironic, then, that the venture capitalists who nurture this creativity aren't more creative in their choices of where to meet, eat, and mingle. The best example of this is the phenomenon of the Silicon Valley breakfast. Breakfast is a prime time here for discussing potential deals. Everyoneand I really mean everyonein Silicon Valley goes to one of three restaurants to do this: Buck's in Woodside, Il Fornaio in the heart of Palo Alto, and Hobee's in the Town and Country Shopping Center in Palo Alto. Same restaurants, same faces, everyone sitting within earshot of each other, bolting coffee and interviewing entrepreneurs.
Take Buck's, for example. It's your basic family-style eatery, with brown leather booth seats and green Formica tabletops. The walls and floors are covered with kitschcowboy boots, giant stone turtles, dinosaur modelsand the last time I was there, there was a glass case on the counter displaying the latest book on Silicon Valley by long-ago Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki. The menu is your basic breakfast fare (the pancakes are great; I get them every time), save for the occasional item, like the nonfat organic omelette, that indicates you're in California.
All kinds of people come to Buck'sentrepreneurs, parents with kids, graduate students from Stanford, guys in pickup trucks. (Of course, Buck's is in the upscale suburb of Woodside, which means that the pickup trucks are fancy, freshly painted, and driven by people who own horses and lots of land.) And lots and lots of venture capitalists and entrepreneurs.
Think about this behavior for a moment. Venture capital feels like one of the most competitive businesses on earth: at the extreme, it is a lot of money chasing a few good deals. Yet we venture capitalists and entrepreneurs stick together like a roving band, working and eating at the same places, staying in one another's orbit. Many times I have sat in one of the brown leather booths at Buck's and overheard things that I should not have heardabout corporate mergers, or the potential firing of an executive, or just some juicy gossipall the while munching away on my pancakes.
What is it that makes us all want to be so much together? I've got my own theory. Venture capital is hard. It's stressful. It's lonely. Decisions that you help to make may lead to millions of dollars of loss or profit for your firmto say nothing of the lives of people whose jobs partially depend on what you decide. In such an out-on-the-edge environment, where at any given point in time you are always wrong about something, it probably just feels better to be with other colleagues in a similar situation.
The managers of the companies that we fund marvel at this herding behavior. But in their favor, the venture capitalists' proximity to one another makes the entrepreneur's job of raising money easier. An entrepreneur can schedule numerous meetingssometimes up to four in a rowfor one day, and just zip up and down Sand Hill Road to get to them. I can't tell you how often entrepreneurs make sure to drop hints that they're seeing other venture capitalists. They announce breathlessly that they can't stay long because they're scheduled for a meeting just down the road, or they apologize for arriving late because they're coming from a meeting just up the road.
Sometimes we invest like a herd too. A notion will sweep Sand Hill that a certain type of company is hot, and five or six of these companies will suddenly materialize and come knocking on our doors within a single month. They will more than likely all get investmentsafter all, nobody wants to get left out of the Next Big Thing (which you'll read about at greater length in another chapter).
But this herdlike investing is inherently dangerous, sometimes resulting in whole categories of companies with markets that never quite take off. Consider, for example, Internet "push" companies, which were supposed to change the way we got information online by delivering information directly so the customer didn't have to spend time searching it out. This market soared on momentum as excited venture capitalists pumped money into it. The venture herd surged forth, and lots of companies got lots of money. By the mid-1990s, more than thirty "push" companies had reportedly been started. But hype, momentum, and the herd mentality do not guarantee success in a market. After about eighteen months the momentum fueling the "push" phenomenon fizzled.
One more defining characteristic of life in the bubble is the astonishing degree to which everyoneand I really do mean everyoneis tuned in, wired, or tied in to the communications revolution going on. Cleaning ladies carry cell phones. High schoolers carry pagers. People stand in line at the grocery store and debate the merits of Yahoo! versus other Internet search engines. In Silicon Valley, the threshold of awareness of the latest industry innovations and trends is exponentially higher than in the rest of the country.
This is one of the key ingredients of the magic I mentioned earlier: Silicon Valley is a place where the extraordinary is ordinary. It is a place where things not yet seen or dreamed of by most of America are already commonplaceor even outdated. It is an atmosphere in which entrepreneurs, investors, and inventors push one another to ever higher peaks of creativity.
But as remarkable as this atmosphere might be, it has been fueled even more by the sudden emergence of an exciting new technology: the Internet.
Table of Contents
|Introduction: What's a Nice Girl Like Me Doing in a Place Like This?||xvi|
|Section 1||Life in the Bubble||1|
|Chapter 1||Working in the Bubble||3|
|Chapter 2||The Internet Explosion||8|
|Chapter 3||VC Does Not Stand for Viet Cong||15|
|Chapter 4||Escaping the Pink Ghetto||22|
|Chapter 5||Does Your Angel Have Wings?||26|
|Chapter 6||People Are to a Business What Location Is to a Restaurant||33|
|Chapter 7||Less Is More, or Subtraction by Addition||40|
|Chapter 8||Make a Decision||42|
|Chapter 9||The Grass Is Not Always Greener||45|
|Chapter 10||Set Your Sights Higher Than Your Own Sandbox||49|
|Chapter 11||Take Me to Your Leader||53|
|Chapter 12||Find Markets the Size of Texas||61|
|Chapter 13||Are You Selling Vitamins or Aspirin?||66|
|Chapter 14||You Must Think Big to Be Big||71|
|Chapter 15||It's Turtles All the Way Down||75|
|Chapter 16||The Next Big Thing||78|
|Section 4||Business Models||83|
|Chapter 17||There Are No More Dolbys||85|
|Chapter 18||Selling a Dollar for Ninety-five Cents Is Not a Winning Business Model||88|
|Chapter 19||Keep an Open Mind||92|
|Chapter 20||How Do I Get from Here to There?||96|
|Chapter 21||Is Your Business Model "Faster, Better, Cheaper" or "Brave New World"?||100|
|Chapter 22||Don't Let Your Mouth Make a Promise That Your Ass Can't Keep||104|
|Chapter 23||What Does "Burn Rate" Mean?||106|
|Section 5||Venture Capitalists||111|
|Chapter 24||The Five Stages of Every Venture Capital Deal||113|
|Chapter 25||Think of Us As Partners||120|
|Chapter 26||Feedback Is a Buying Sign||123|
|Chapter 27||Seeing Shows That Aren't in TV Guide||127|
|Chapter 28||Five Common Mistakes First-Time Entrepreneurs Make||133|
|Chapter 29||Real Entrepreneurs Quit Their Day Jobs||137|
|Chapter 30||Five Things a CEO Should Not Say at a Board Meeting||140|
|Chapter 31||Hype Is a Double-Edged Sword||143|
|Chapter 32||What about a Family Affair?||147|
|Chapter 33||You Can Never Be Too Rich, Too Thin, or Too Paranoid||150|
|Section 7||The Fine Line between Bizarre and Brilliant||155|
|Section 8||The Dumbest Decision I Ever Made||161|
|Section 9||Valuation and More||167|
|Chapter 34||You Can Have a Small Piece of a Large Pie or a Large Piece of Nothing||169|
|Chapter 35||Manhattan Was Bought for a Bunch of Beads||172|
|Chapter 36||Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?||175|
|Section 10||A View from the Trenches||179|
|Section 11||Five Short Years to a Revolution||191|
|Appendix||A Primer on Financing and Valuation||198|